Shift2Rail logo A body of the European Union

Advanced Traffic Management And Control Systems

IP Coordinator:Antonella Trombetta - HITACHI RAIL STS


Total Project Value:
€ 33 890 375,44
from 01/12/2020 to 31/05/2023
S2R (Of H2020) co-funding:
€ 14 844 166,93
Axel Wodtke
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR)


The “Advanced Traffic Management & Control Systems” pillar (IP2) focuses on control, command and communication systems and tackles the high-level Shift2Rail objectives. These include evolving requirements for new functionalities and to expand the level of standardization in an increasingly challenging economic climate. 

The pillar (IP2) challenge is to increase functionalities of the existing signalling and automation systems and related design and validation processes providing a more competitive, flexible, real-time, intelligent traffic control management and decision support system, whilst addressing all four market segments and maintaining backward compatibility to the existing European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) and especially its European Train Control System component (ETCS). 

X2Rail-5 aims to bring to conclusion the research and development of some key technologies to foster innovations in the field of railway signalling, automation, telecommunication, testing methodologies and Cyber-Security, as part of a longer term Shift2Rail IP2 strategy towards a flexible, real-time, intelligent traffic control management and decision support system. The actions undertaken in the scope of X2Rail-5 are related to the following specific objectives: 
  • To improve line capacity and to achieve a significant reduction of the use of traditional train detection systems by means of the introduction of the Moving Block together with train positioning, train integrity and train length; 
  • To overcome the limitations of the existing communication system by adapting radio communication systems which establish the backbone for the next generation advanced rail automation systems; 
  • To achieve a significant reduction of the use of traditional train detection systems by means of the attainment of an absolute and safe train positioning system based on a multi-sensor concept, where GNSS is the preferred technology; 
  • To ensure security among all connected signalling and control systems by developing new cyber security systems dedicated to railways; 
  • To improve standardization and integration of the testing methodologies and formal methods application reducing time to market and improving effectiveness in the introduction of new signalling and supervision systems; 
  • To ensure the evolution and backward compatibility of ERMTS/ETCS technologies, notwithstanding of the required functional enrichment of the future signalling and control systems. 

The actions foreseen in X2Rail-5 will bring to the highest readiness level (TRL) taking the results of previous X2Rail-1, X2Rail-2, X2Rail-3 and X2Rail-4 projects. It is important to underline that X2Rail-5 includes Integrated Technology Demonstrators (ITD) bringing together several S2R IP2 Technology Demonstrators. 

Project Structure

WP01 - Project Management

The objectives of this work package are to ensure efficient and effective:

  • Coordination of the project
  • Management of the consortium and contract management
  • Administrative and financial management
  • Quality management

WP02 - Technical Coordination & System Coherence

The objective of this WP is to coordinate the 10 technical work packages (WPs3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12) and the dissemination work package (WP13) to create a single project that addresses the whole subject of research and innovations in X2Rail-5 in coherence with the ongoing and concurrent S2R IP2 research and development activities, as well as S2R Programme Board decisions, Linx4Rail and the action to be funded under topic S2R-CFM-IPX and CCA-02-2020 “Evolution of Railways System Architecture and Conceptual Data Model (CDM)”. WP2 will facilitate and foster synergies between the different technical work packages towards S2R objectives. Continuing the activities of WP2 of X2Rail-1, WP2 of X2Rail-2, WP2 of X2Rail-3 and WP2 of X2Rail-4 that are already acting together, this WP will enable seamless and effective technical coordination and system integration, by providing the leaders of all work packages with a platform for coherence checks and interface management.
The WP will act as the interface to Linx4Rail and to the action to be funded under topic S2R-CFM-IPX and CCA-02-2020 “Evolution of Railways System Architecture and Conceptual Data Model (CDM)” regarding the technical assessment of specification requests resulting from the analysis performed in that frame. The WP will also act as the interface to the S2R Programme Board for the integration of the decisions taken by the latter based on inputs from Linx4Rail and from the action to be funded under topic S2R-CFM-IPX and CCA-02-2020 “Evolution of Railways System Architecture and Conceptual Data Model (CDM)”.

WP03 - Adaptable Communication System for all Railways

The objectives of this work package are to cover the definition, development and field-test of prototypes and demonstrators for the adaptable communication system in response to ETCS and CBTC system requirements, cover operational voice services as well as supporting enhancements of the signalling system foreseen by other TDs and other railway communication needs (critical video, critical data). During the start-up activities for TD2.1 (X2Rail-1 & X2Rail-3), the communication requirements were analysed, collected and documented, the definition and specification of the adaptable communication system was done, and the prototype development activities were started.

In the second phase of TD2.1 (X2Rail-3) the finalisation of the prototype development and the testing and integration of prototypes into demonstrators, with the aim to validate in a lab the concepts and demonstrate the capabilities of the adaptable communication system for different railway environments were the main objectives. In detail the outcome of the prototype development activities were integrated into three demonstrators, mainline / high-speed-line, urban/suburban and regional/freight line, which were tested and validated with reference to the user & system requirements and communication system specification in different lab environments.

In the 3rd phase related to this project the main objective is to validate the demonstrators within field test environments. Herewith, the objective is to demonstrate the capacity of the selected architectures and the targeted technologies to answer the needs for communication of the different segments and to check its adaptability, in terms of scalability and bearers choice toward real field conditions. The field test will contribute to the evaluation of Adaptable Communication System (ACS) architecture potential to be standardized. Based on the results of the field test, the system specification including the choice of technology part of the ACS will be updated accordingly.

The work package will continue the collaboration with external organizations like UIC, ERA, ETSI, FRMCS, 3GPP as well as complementary actions represented by projects from Shift2Rail open calls and related projects from other Shift2Rail innovation programme projects (e.g CONNECTA).

WP04 - Moving Block Specifications

The overall objective of the Moving Block Technical Demonstrator is to define a high capacity, low cost, high reliability signalling system, based on Moving Block principles, which is applicable across all railway market segments. High Capacity is based on the use of Moving Block principles, which permits decoupling of the infrastructure from train performance parameters. Low Cost is achieved by the reduction in the use of trackside train detection and line-side signals. High Reliability is achieved as a consequence of the reduction in trackside equipment associated with trackside train detection and line-side signals. 

Within this Work Package, the objectives are as follows: 

  1. To develop the specification delivered from X2Rail-3 which define the Specifications for a Moving Block Signalling System: X2Rail-3 D4.2 Moving Block Specification. The work will take account of the L3 “Gamechanger” Change Requests to the ETCS specifications, which have already been raised. 

  2. To provide material to the railway industry to support the work on CCS TSI 2022. This work is started in X2Rail-3, and will continue in the first part of X2Rail-5. 

  3. To collaborate with TD2.7 Formal Methods and Open Call S2R-OC-IP2-01-2020, in order to facilitate formalisation and safety verification of the level 3 behaviour. 

  4. Implementation of Moving Block Technical Demonstrators supporting all options as defined below, and has been the case in X2Rail-1 and X2Rail-3. 

There are two implementation options for Moving Block systems, “Full Moving Block” and “Fixed Virtual Blocks”. In addition, systems may be with or without Trackside Train Detection. If Trackside Train Detection is present, it may not cover 100% of the track. 

WP05 - Fail-Safe Train Positioning Specification

The objective of this work package is the definition of an interoperable solution for the Fail-Safe Train Positioning, through the continuation of the work done in X2Rail-2 and previous projects. The Fail-Safe Train Positioning Specifications of WP5 will both:
  • Orientate the implementation of the Stream 1 and Stream 2 demonstrators, respectively in WP6 and WP7 (top-down approach, based on operational needs and functional requirements);
  • Take into account the feedback from the experimentations (bottom-up approach).

The final goal shall be to seek for possible commonalities or synergies between Stream 1 and Stream 2, with the aim to contribute, from a long-term perspective to the definition of a single standardized and interoperable solution for the Fail-Safe Train Positioning.

WP06 - “VB Fail-Safe Train Positioning” Development and Testing

The objective of WP6 is to finalize the activities carried out in previous projects concerning the development of VB Train Positioning System demonstrators. The activity shall define and develop VB Train Positioning system prototypes able to use different technology solutions. The proposed demonstrators will be developed to assess the feasibility of the solutions according to the agreed specifications in WP5 and previous projects.

The activities shall be carried out by using an “AGILE” approach, starting from available specifications and PoC, with the objective to demonstrate the feasibility and analyse the performances of proposed solutions, as well as to provide inputs to the specification tasks performed in WP5.

WP07 - “Stand-Alone Fail-Safe Train Positioning” Development and Testing

The objective of WP7 is to finalize the activities started in previous projects concerning the development of Stand-Alone Fail-Safe Train Positioning System demonstrators. The activity shall develop Stand Alone Fail-Safe Train Positioning system demonstrator. The proposed demonstrator will be developed to assess the feasibility of a solution according to the analysis of previous projects as well as the requirements defined in WP5 and shall support the definition of an interoperable solution for a stand-alone train positioning system.

The activities shall start from available specifications and PoC, with the objective to demonstrate the feasibility and analyse the performances of the proposed solution, as well as to provide inputs to the specification tasks performed in WP5.

WP08 - Zero On site Testing - Enhancing Test Environment Capabilities

  • Finalization of activities started with X2Rail-1 (WP6) and continued by X2Rail-3(WP5)
  • Identification and evaluation of the technical boundaries of a distributed lab, for example those relating to acceptable latency in the communication and the resulting impact on performance
  • Analysis to mitigate possible weaknesses in field-testing either prior to construction or after putting in operation in terms of maintenance activities leading to the final Zero On–Site Testing.
  • Set up and demonstrate an integrated test environment for running automated testing scenarios according to X2Rail-1/X2Rail-3 architecture; example used for demonstrator: Automated test environment for testing TMS and Public Information Services.

WP09 - Zero On site Testing- Demonstration of additional Test Environment Capabilities

The main objective of the work package is the finalization the prototypes defined and implemented in X2Rail-3 based on the requirements updated in WP8. The objectives followed with X2Rail-5 contain:
  • Completion of further features within the context of game changers i.e. moving block or ATO by providing additional simulation capabilities to the test environment focusing on interoperability tests between suppliers in a train handover scenario across borders with same supplier RBC or other supplier’s RBC
  • Enhancing the test capabilities and test environment to be installed in a distributed lab based on available achievements from previous X2Rail Projects and previous work package tasks

WP10 - Formal Methods for Functional Railway System Architecture

This WP has the following main objectives:
  • Apply Formal Methods (FMs) to provide a deep analysis of requirements for ERMTS L3 trackside supported by a process to formalize and verify requirements that, if fulfilled, ensure a safe and operational behaviour, while also including complementary verification methods based on simulation/testing, and requirements on configuration data.
  • Identify and apply suitable approaches to specify different types of behaviour to meet the needs of future Functional Railway System Architectures, to gain the benefits of FMs in definition and verification of requirements at system/subsystem level, and to support needs in tender requirements.
  • To propose and apply a methodology and toolchain to automate the transformation of semi-formal specification models into models for formal verification.

This WP will extend results of FMs applied at the subsystem level in X2Rail-2 TD2.7 to the System-of-Systems (SoS) level, targeting primarily formalization and verification of requirements to contribute to: refinement of the preliminary safety analysis for moving block for L3 trackside, to establish verifiable requirements for configuration data, and to evaluate test-based verification of non-safety requirements. Since track status is derived primarily from train position reports in L3, both the trackside system and data from onboard systems (e.g. train integrity) must be considered in safety hazards for L3 trackside. A moving block system alone cannot ensure safety, without assumptions on environment systems; this creates the need for a SoS perspective in safety-related analyses of L3 trackside.

The MBSE approach of specifying standardised interfaces for reactive systems that was one of the subjects in X2Rail-2 TD2.7 will need to be adjusted to meet the needs of future Functional Railway System Architectures. X2Rail-2 TD2.7 demonstrated that manual transformation of EULYNX specification models into formal models is feasible but is time-consuming and can be error-prone. Thus, in this WP, approaches to specify interfaces and system components e.g. RCA will be evaluated and assessed with respect to: technical needs and support of the automated transformation of specification models into formal models and formal verification of these models.

Main inputs to this WP will be specifications of moving block for L3 trackside (from X2Rail-3, including a preliminary safety analysis), and of Hybrid ERTMS L3, the architecture and modelling frameworks defined by Linx4Rail/RCA and results from FMs application in X2Rail-2 (including application on standard interface specifications). Overall, this WP will align with the work and directives of LinX4Rail.

WP11 - Cybersecurity framework validation and incidence report

The first objective of this work package will be to complete and validate the work done by the TD2.11 during the projects X2Rail-1 and X2Rail-3 through the completions and assessment of the demonstrators started in X2Rail-3 (X2Rail-3 WP9 T9.5 and T9.6), and the validation of the proposed CSIRT/ISAC model (X2Rail-3 WP9 T9.7).

The second objective aims at assessing the protection profile approach developed in X2Rail-3 (X2Rail-3 WP8 T8.3).

Besides the assessment of the cybersecurity activities implemented in the previous X2Rail projects, the last objective of this work package will consist in analysing the cybersecurity resilience of the railway system. In order to achieve these objectives, the work package will be organised in 4 different tasks:
  1.  Completion of joint analysis’s and demonstrator with other TDs (objective 1);
  2.  Demonstrator for cybersecurity framework assessment (objective 2);
  3.  Validation of the CSIRT/ISAC prototype and model proposal (objective 1);
  4.  Analysis of the cybersecurity resilience within the railway (objective 3).

WP12 - Integrated Technology Demonstrator

The objective of this Work Package is to demonstrate the integration and operation of several technologies from: TD2.1 Communications; TD2.3 Moving Block; and TD2.5 Train Integrity on a railway test track, using one freight train and one passenger train. It is important to show individual capabilities working together, in harmony, in an operational scenario.
For TD2.1 the demonstration will include dynamic switching between at least two different communications bearers.
For TD2.3 the demonstration will include a moving block trackside system to separate trains
For TD2.5 the demonstration will show compatibility of the Train Integrity results with other ETCS components.

WP13 - Exploitation, Dissemination & Communication

This WP seeks to ensure proper dissemination and promotion of the project and its results, in a way which is consistent with the dissemination and promotion activities of the Shift2Rail JU and the already ongoing IP2 projects X2Rail-2, X2Rail-3 and X2Rail-4. It will ensure that the outputs of the project are delivered in a form which makes them immediately available for use by the IP2 within Shift2Rail. The WP13 will make use of the results stemming from all other work packages and foster the communication and transfer of these results. This means that results of all WP´s will be taken by WP13 and used for dissemination and communication activities. It will also ensure that all important actors in the European railway sector are consulted and informed about X2Rail-5, its objectives, input, content and results. Since X2Rail-5 will reach TRL6/7, significant project results like prototypes and demonstrators will be presented during public exhibitions and congresses. A further objective is to facilitate acceptance of the project outcomes by the standards and regulatory bodies, as well as by the main actors of the EU rail sector. The more detailed objectives of this work package are:
  • To establish the project as a reference among the end users stakeholders;
  • To develop and manage effective communication interfaces and dissemination with the outside world;
  • To disseminate on project results that evolve from the project during its course and to guarantee the proper exchange and diffusion of knowledge using a platform;
  • To foster the use and application of the results that will have to take place when the project has finished;
  • To create and spread a data management plan among the stakeholders inside and outside the project.

In addition, specific attention shall be given to the information exchange with:
  • Relevant authorities, and in particular the ERA;
  • Relevant representative bodies and organisations at the European and International levels.




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Axel Wodtke

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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020research and innovation programme under grant agreement No: 101014520