WP01 - CBM - Condition Based Maintenance The overall goal of this work package is to use the experience and the findings gained from FR8RAIL III in order to develop CBM from a support function of rail freight and asset operation to a source of innovation and the main maintenance strategy for European companies. Therefore, CBM needs to be integrated into the overall maintenance and operating processes initiated and pushed by a project status. The integration includes all the changes in processes and in the type of work done by employees so far. Main demands are to avoid parallel and ill-aligned maintenance actions and to rethink roles and responsibilities in a digitalized maintenance process initiated by the development of advanced monitoring solutions for all kind of asset components. One crucial step during this development process is the definition or adjustment of thresholds as basis for the optimization of the current maintenance rules. These efforts also comprise prior reliability analyses of different components / spare parts. To describe the “condition” of a component, locomotive, wagon or fleet, a continuous monitoring based on different measured values, algorithms and KPIs and their defined thresholds will be set up. Finally, an end-to-end CBM workflow for a European fleet will be demonstrated.WP02 - CBM Wayside Monitoring Condition-based maintenance of freight wagons is rarely implemented in current practice. Wayside monitoring was started within the framework of FR8RAIL III WP1 (Condition Based Maintenance) in Task 1.5 “Alignment task to wayside monitoring”. The main goal of this task was to examine the possibility of moving from the existing reactive approaches to a more proactive approach. This would support a CBM strategy for the vehicle, with the aim of reducing the number of capacity consuming events and the probability of introducing failures or wear to the infrastructure. The first analysis in this task show positive results for a transformation of the maintenance. Until now, wayside diagnostic systems have mainly been used to detect already existing damage like hot runners (because of massive Bearing Damage, blocked Brakes or wheel flats).
Newer systems in the field could offer the possibility to determine the condition of freight wagons (with damages in an earlier stage). However, newer systems integrated in the main tracks have not yet proven their operational capability to a large extent.
Due to their cross-border use, freight wagons are also subject to special requirements and responsibilities (GCU). Therefore, a supra-regional acceptance and reliability of the diagnostic systems is necessary and has to be analyzed to enable cross-border guidelines.
Within the scope of this work package, the focus will be on the analysis of the output of different types of wayside monitoring systems (e.g. wheel flat detectors, wheel profile measurement systems). The result of this analysis will partly be connected to the work of WP7 where the generated information could be combined with the on-board telematics systems. In addition, a basis for analysis using artificial intelligence, for example, is to be created and the workshop processes are to be questioned and optimized.WP03 - Automatic Coupler Test FR8RAIL I and II Automatic Coupler technical solution, in real operational conditions, to check the level of compliance with the functional requirements, defined in FR8RAIL I and II. This will allow achieving a higher TRL level, with a proved solution, fostering a future standardization in Europe, and a product to be released to the market in the short term.
Depending on the performance of the component, validation activities will be completed progressively, starting from simple workshop tests, up to complete operational conditions in a real demonstration consist.WP04 - Automation of Rail Freight Automation of rail freight is a key precondition to achieve an intermodal shift to rail. It will tackle the most pressing challenges of rail freight, to become more cost competitive based on LCC-savings, more reliably, based on a highly automated production system, faster in lead time and more agile to respond to market demands, due to decoupled rolling stock and personnel planning.WP05 - Core Market Wagon The result of the previous work in the previous stages of the project is a functional mock-up CMW, which by its parameters represents the first in the European market in terms of existing covered wagons with sliding side walls. This Project in itself embodies all the benefits and features of a 5L (low weight….) Wagon that has been optimized to the best possible extent using long-term experience combined with modern technology. In order to meet the requirements of the 5L wagon, it is important to mention the FR8RAIL-bogie chassis developed in parallel, which was presented with the CMW at the Innotrans exhibition in Berlin in 2018.
The activities in WP05 are seamlessly linked to the results and outputs achieved under FR8RAIL I (in particular WP01 and WP04) and FR8RAIL II (in particular WP01, WP02 and WP05). It is based on the successful completion in this framework of Task 1.1 Core Wagon design (FR8RAIL II), as described in TD 5.3 –Smart Freight Wagon Concepts of the Draft Shift2Rail Multi Annual Action Plan, Part B (20 May 2019). The CMW will contribute to increased reliability of the freight transport due to its integrated solutions for telematics and electrification. The challenges are to increase the payload per meter of train by means of lightweight design. Optimized aerodynamics and acoustics will contribute to a greener and more efficient operation.
The main objective is to increase the attractiveness of rail freight transport, including by means of a new smart wagon meeting all 5L parameters. Attractiveness lies mainly in the possibility of transporting pallet material, white and black electronics, food and moisture-sensitive material that provides the opportunity to replace road transport. In connection with the aforementioned modern technologies, its competitiveness is at a high level.
The subsequent work in the FR8RAIL IV project will focus and combine blocks 5.3.1 Running Gear and 5.3.2 Core market wagon. It will contribute to the vision of smart, ecological, efficient propulsion technologies by means of a modern and innovative lightweight wagon structure with reduced aerodynamic drag and with optimized running gear.
In FR8RAIL IV a demonstrator will be developed and built, consisting of an Aluminium bogie suitable for CMW, which means also for the existing UIC and TSI freight wagons. This will increase the wagon load capacity by nearly 900 kg. The modified and improved CMW will integrate elements for automatic coupling, monitoring, brakes and telematics. It is particularly important that the CMW not only remain as a result of development on paper, but that it is cost-effective and attractive to the customer. The benefits of the chassis designed and manufactured in the FR8RAIL I and FR8RAIL II phases, will be integrated into the new Aluminium solution. This solution will enter the CMW and as a whole will achieve the aforementioned benefits, in particular weight, and LCC enhancement, with an emphasis on product manufacturing and marketability.
In this work package the wagon design concept and the demonstrator will undergo operational field tests, where we can integrate the best solutions and results from FR8RAIL I and FR8RAIL II collaboration. Laboratory tests with the new bogie for the CMW as well as a field test of the innovative brake disc will also be performed.WP06 - Extended Market Wagon This work is a consistent continuation of the work done in the FR8RAIL (WP4 Smart Wagon concepts), II (WP 1 Wagon Design & Automatic Coupler) and III (WP 4 WP4 Extended Market Wagon) project. It is based on the successful completion in this framework of Task 1.2 Extended Wagon design, as described in TD 5.3 –Smart Freight Wagon Concepts of the Draft Shift2Rail Multi Annual Action Plan, Part B (20 May 2019). The subsequent work in the FR8RAIL IV project will focus on the Task 5.3.4 Complete freight wagon demonstrator and deliver the building blocks 5.3.1 Running Gear and 5.3.2 Core market wagon. It will contribute to the vision of smart, ecological, efficient propulsion technologies by means of a modern and innovative lightweight wagon structure with reduced aerodynamic drag and with optimized running gear.
For the demonstration of the high potential of a new freight wagon, its structure with an innovative running gear system, according to the specifications defined in FR8RAIL, and under consideration of the conceptual design developed in FR8RAIL II and FR8RAIL III, will be confirmed. It is based on a two-axle wagon solution, provided with a new running gear design that fosters weight reduction and an improved steering capacity in order to minimize wear and damage of rail and wheels. The wagon will be realized as a rollable physical demonstrator (up to TRL 6) under consideration of the frame conditions. Furthermore it will be the base for the further integration and demonstration of the components which are necessary e.g. for the electrification of the wagon.
In order to achieve the addressed issues and to push forward the development of the next generation freight wagon, research and development in the following areas is proposed:
Detailing of a new wagon design
Systematic improvement and development of a structural and lightweight-design-optimized car body structure
Develop further the novel running gear design concept based on methodical approaches under consideration of frame conditions
Construction of a rollable physical demonstrator of the wagon including all relevant components such as couplers, brakes, running gear, WOBU, Wagon Monitoring System (WMS), which consists of a DPU and sensors for condition monitoring, brake control and others etc.
Development of optimal train composition in terms of aerodynamic drag reduction
Extensive measurement campaigns with a 20-foot Swap body container which has been developed in the framework of the FR8RAIL II project. It is equipped with sensors to determine the acting wind forces and characteristics of the boundary layer. It also provides a platform for field tests of OBU equipment.
The influence of material properties on wheel rail wear will be further studied. Different contact laws developed in FR8RAIL I and II will be implemented in Wear Simulation Programs and the benefits achieved by using improved material combinations will be assessed.
In this work package the wagon design concept is laid out and detailed based on the achieved results in FR8RAIL II and the frame conditions (e.g. of the specification inFR8RAIL I). This includes the wagon design and the mechanical architecture with the possible geometries for the main parts. Concepts for the integration of the electrification of the wagon from FR8Rail III are considered here along with the impact on the Wagon structure that will be completed to the necessary detail for the prototype demonstration.WP07 - Telematics and electrification Freight Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) will be enabled by the intelligent wagon based on Telematics and Electrification. Based on the results of previous S2R IP5 projects, the objectives of this work package are aligned towards completing the demonstrators of the intelligent wagon with regards to the interoperability of the system:
Integration of the demonstrator of the intelligent wagon based on telematics and electrification (T7.1).
Demonstration activities of the intelligent wagon based on telematics and electrification (T7.2).
The main objective of this WP is to test the features of the wagon On-Board Unit (wOBU), focusing on the communications for the Wireless backbone infrastructure. This infrastructure is composed by several wagon On-Board Units (wOBU) wirelessly interconnected. Along this infrastructure, several services can be provided. The provided services which are centralized by the wOBU in this demonstrator are CMS, WMS, OTI, Positioning and Automatic Coupler.
The scope is to demonstrate the feasibility of a Wireless communication backbone infrastructure along freight trains able to provide seamless on-board communications services for sensors and service layer applications. The main impact is providing added-value services for wagon and cargo monitoring applications in real-time using the Wireless Train Network along the freight composition. The demonstrator will set the basis for the subsequent demonstrators related to telematics and electrification planned on the FR8RAIL IV Project, Communications and wOBU will be validated on the initial demonstrator. The demonstrator is related to Telematics & Electrification (TD5.3 Wagon Design) and it is close linked with Core Market Wagon Demonstrator and Extended Marked Wagon Demonstrator.
WP08 - Long Trains with Distributed Power This WP continues the activities started in FFL4E and FR8RAIL II aiming at the final goal of a system capable of running trains with Distributed Power up to 1,500 m. FFL4E and FR8RAIL II has been focusing on the development and demonstration of the basic Distributed Power technology. FR8RAIL IV focuses on preparing the regular operation of Distributed Power in European rail freight sector. The objectives of the WP are:
Further Refinement of Distributed Power Technology
Development of concepts for migration the railway system to bring Distributed Power into regular service
Development of concepts to use Distributed Power in older loco fleetWP09 - Freight Loco of the Future This WP mainly continues the work started in FR8RAIL III regarding the onboard energy storage system and the new SiC based auxiliary converter system. It also studies the results achieved in IP5 so far, relevant for freight locomotives to be ready for future production modes for rail freight.
The main objectives are (1) demonstrating the technologies developed in R8RAIL III and IV and (2) creating the requirement baseline for freight locomotives to be fulfilled for future production modes.WP10 - ManagemenTo ensure an efficient coordination with the WP leaders and the technical management team (TMT) is aligned
To ensure efficient management of common consortium activities
To ensure efficient overall administrative and financial management of the project
To ensure the running of a quality assurance process
To manage the risks and propose mitigation strategies and contingency measures if neededWP11 - DisseminationThis work package aims at establishing and running the required dissemination and exploitation plan, according to what has been described in Section 2.2. in detail.
The goal is to successful,
Establish the project as a point of reference among the end user stakeholders.
Develop and manage effective communication interfaces and dissemination channels between the project partners and with the outside world.
Exploit sources of external knowledge and requirements related to the scope and aims of this project
Disseminate the results that emerge from the project and to guarantee the diffusion of knowledge using the Shift2Rail platform.
Foster the use and application of the results that take place when the project has been completed In addition, specific attention will be given to the information of relevant authorities, and in particular the European Railway Agency, and of relevant organisation bodies at the European and international levels.
Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) is a new maintenance strategy powered by upcoming technologies, which are constantly improving by following agile principles. This agile development process happens in multiple iterations, with the focus on bringing parts of the whole project for testing to the customer and then being able to act on requests, issues or changes in a quick way. This would not be possible in the classical waterfall project management approach, where at the beginning, the project is defined in every detail and is therefore not flexible towards a fast-changing environment. Following these, CBM has built an additional application to close the information loop between the data scientists working on the analytics platform and the maintenance repairing physical assets. Aligned with its purpose, the application is called Feedbackloop (FBL).
The Feedbackloop is an extension of the fleet management software in DB Cargo, D Fleet, and stands in between the analytics platform and the integrated maintenance system SAP ISI, where the maintenance work is ordered.
This easy-to-use web interface allows the Use Case manager to filter false alarms from the analytics platform, share advice with the workshop on how to resolve an issue directly, and ask if the issue corresponds to what the Use Case logic wants to detect. Once multiple feedbacks have been sent, the Use Case manager can aggregate and evaluate the feedback with ECM2 to see if the Use Case is ready for validation.
These features together have helped anchor the CBM Project inside DB Cargo teams by improving the quality of the developed Use Cases, turning the workshop into an active CBM participant and adding transparency and accountability for the new software and platforms.
DB Cargo is operating and maintaining a large fleet of locomotives and wagons in several of its entities across Europe. Acting as the Entity in Charge of Maintenance (ECM) of these vehicles, on one hand the company ends up dealing with a complex and inflexible constellation of maintenance documentation because there is no industry standard for maintenance manuals. On the other hand, CBM as new maintenance strategy being implemented, is another enormous driver adding more complexity to the production system of DB Cargo due to continuous data driven experiences and a steady knowledge increase.
To overcome these challenges, DB Cargo developed a solution of modularizing maintenance manuals and implementing them to their digital maintenance platform. This leads to an enormous decrease of complexity within the production system and provides more flexibility when it comes to updates or new regulations in the maintenance manuals. In addition, this solution allows a roll-out to all European entities due to its multilingualism.
Dissemination activities are an important element of the FR8RAIL IV project. InnoTrans is the leading international trade fair for rail transport technology and takes place every two years in Berlin. Divided into the five trade fair segments Railway Technology, Railway Infrastructure, Public Transport, Interiors and Tunnel Construction, InnoTrans occupies all 42 halls of the Berlin Exhibition Grounds. The InnoTrans Convention, the event's top-class supporting program, complements the trade fair. A unique feature of InnoTrans is the open-air site and the track system, where everything from tank cars to high-speed trains can be seen on 3,500 meters of track. Therefore, InnoTrans is the perfect event for all partners to show the technical demonstrators resulting from the FR8RAIL IV project, built on top of all previous projects in the framework of IP5. The thirteenth InnoTrans took place from 20 to 23 September 2022. Various partners have exhibited their demos at various locations at the fair. This report provides an overview of the different technical development results of the partners and consortia.
The subject area of automation as well as the variety of adjacent subject areas are becoming increasingly important in today's world. In all sectors and areas of life, companies are striving for new, automated business models that promise lower costs, more flexibility and an increase in efficiency.
This thesis examines how to successfully transition from today's manual driving of traction units in rail freight transport to automated driving. The focus is placed on automated driving on the track, as the entirety of the processes in railway operations that can be automated is too extensive to be considered comprehensively in this work. Although a European approach to the introduction of automated driving in rail freight transport will be decisive for successful implementation, the work will also focus on the framework conditions in German rail freight transport.
As a part of a new automation function a Collision Avoidance System (CAS) for shunting locomotives has been developed and tested. The operation area for CAS is the shunting yard which allow only low-speed operations and which normally only railway employees are entering. With the CAS occurring accidents which are often caused by human errors and normally lead to costly damages of vehicles can be decreased or almost avoided. First a basic Collision Avoidance System (B-CAS) using a basic sensor setup has been developed, implemented and tested in different locations. In a second step a further sensor setup has been generated which allows better and earlier obstacle detection due to a better sensor setup but also fulfils the requirement of cost-effectiveness for an operational implementation.
The subject of work in this work package is represented by the laboratory tests with CMW incl. FR8RAIL II bogie. The results are CAD-models, drawings, physical demonstrator of a CMW, protocol of tests.
Tasks were also subjected to this goal. In order to meet the requirements, it was necessary to create a drawing documentation for the construction of physical prototypes. This was followed by the stage of building of bogie prototypes with an optimized wheelset coupling through a U-frame. It was also subjected to strength and fatigue tests in the VUD test laboratory in Žilina. The prototype wagon equipped with FR8Rail bogies was sent to the VUKV test laboratory in Cerhenice, where all planned tests took place. It was derailment safety verification, brake function was verified during the brake test, running tests and noise tests.
Task 4.2 Requirements and Test Documentation for Concept Collision Avoidance System (CAS) in Shunting Operation
Human error is a main cause for accidents on shunting yards during freight train composition. Despite the relatively low speeds in shunting operations, these accidents can lead to significant damage. Collision avoidance systems (CAS) can help to reduce the impacts of or even completely prevent these incidents. The goal of this task 4.2 was to develop and test a particular CAS system for shunting operations in yards that assists the driver with optical or acoustic warnings and alerts in case of danger.
To achieve this goal, the following steps were taken:
• Development of different sensor set-ups, possibly allowing for a cost-efficient retrofit of an existing fleet of shunting locomotives,
• Generation of a comprehensive data basis recorded with the CAS system in shunting operations,
• Definition of test cases for the collision avoidance core functionalities,
• Execution of tests and evaluation (both qualitatively and quantitatively) of the CAS system performance.
The video shows footage of a test taking place in Augsburg in 2022. The CAS is able to estimate the vehicle’s speed and acceleration while measuring the distances to different obstacles in its environment. Tracks, objects and obstacles are detected and highlighted in the developed GUI.
See the video for a better understanding. More details will follow in the corresponding Deliverable D4.2.
Task 1.4 Modularization and integration of manufacturer guidelines into the digital platform of maintenance rules and guidelines and its application to European entities
Digitalized and modularized maintenance rules and guidelines are one pre-condition for a sustainable implementation of CBM as a new maintenance strategy. With CBM, more changes of maintenance rules and guidelines (modification and optimization) as within other maintenance strategies (e.g., block strategy) are expected, due to continuous data-driven experiences and a steady knowledge increase.
As part of this task manufacturer guidelines have been modularized and integrated into the existing digital platform “DM Cube”. Eventually this platform has been introduced to all the legal entities of DB Cargo in European countries.
The video shows a click-through of the DM Cube highlighting all its features:
• Detailed Search Query
• Module-specific Maintenance Guidelines
• Interactive Interlinking
• Customizable Widgets
The purpose of this delivery D3.1 is to formally conclude and visualize that the Task 3.1 - Automatic Coupler Demonstrators has been completed according to the Grant Agreement, i.e. that real scale, fully operational Automatic Coupler prototypes, based on the design of FR8RAIL II, have been manufactured, delivered and mounted on rail freight wagons.
This document formally conclude that the planned - D3.2 Test definition and protocol has been
delivered according to the Grant Agreement.
The initial situation is that its system is incompatible within the European locomotive fleet and railway infrastructure due to specific control systems. This results in high costs, which need to be reduced in order to generate a higher share of freight transport by rail.
For this purpose, the aim of this deliverable is to create a generic, open freight automation on-board reference architecture that is comprehensible and transparently involves and presents the use cases to be considered.
The basis for the deliverable is provided by previous activities in mainly ARCC consortia, but the connections to consortia such as X2Rail, Connecta and Tauro are also used to create the reference architecture in the best possible way.
In addition, a technical approach based on standardization will be used. Different modules that are to be included in the reference architecture are presented and interfaces between modules and the train specific control system are also presented in order to enable a high level of harmonization. The reference architecture is set up on the basis of various subsets that have already been created so that a European-wide usability can be generated.
WP 8 focusses on the preparation of the regular operation of Distributed Power System (DPS) in rail traffic. One core topic doing so is to develop concepts to integrate DPS technology into different types of locos: new locos, “young” locos and old locos. All three types come up with different challenges in integrating a new technology like DPS.
Starting from architectural considerations the concepts to integrate DPS are applied to different concrete loco types. In addition, concepts for the refinement of DPS technology based on the learnings from DPS test runs in 2019 and 2021 are developed
* Please note that this/these deliverable(s) is/are undergoing S2R JU review and acceptance processes.
All deliverables, results and publications herewith provided reflects only the author's view and the S2R JU is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
We are delighted to invite you to the final event of our EU-funded project, FR8RAIL IV. It is the final project in a series focusing on rail freight in the framework of the ERJU joint undertaking. The event will take place on 15th June 2023 at 9:30am in Frankfurt am Main.
During this event, we will be showcasing the outcomes of our project, which has been aimed at improving the efficiency, sustainability, and safety of rail freight transportation in Europe. We will present the results of our research, discuss our key findings and recommendations, and share our experiences and best practices.
We are pleased to announce that the event will feature distinguished speakers from the EU Commission, the rail freight industry, and other relevant stakeholders. They will provide insights into the latest trends, challenges, and opportunities in the field of rail freight.
This is a unique opportunity to network with experts, exchange ideas and knowledge, and learn about the latest innovations in rail freight transportation. We hope that you can join us and contribute to the success of our final event.
Please use the contacts link and write a message to the FR8RAIL IV coordinator to receive more details about this event together with the registration link.
We look forward to seeing you there!
Shift2Rail IP5 projects - YouTube
A new videos have been published in our YouTube channel.
FR8RAIL IV Task 1.3 - Maintenance feedback loop from workshops - secure continuous improvement process and sustainability
To ensure a continuous improvement and validation process within the CBM strategy, a feedback loop from the workshops about the usefulness of CBM-initiated maintenance actions will be integrated. With this important feedback all CBM driven maintenance actions can be reviewed by the workers.
This video shows the end to end CBM process including the functionalities of the feedback loop.
See the link
Two new videos have been published in our YouTube channel.
The Shif2Rail IP5, FR8RAIL IV Technical Demonstrator of the Extended Market Wagon was exhibited at the fair InnoTrans 2022 in Berlin.
As part of the exhibition, the project participants DLR, CEIT, CAF, ConTraffic, Dellner, Knorr-Bremse and VDB presented various technical innovations as part of the overall concept. Among other things, a lightweight car body, a new type of bogie concept with corresponding wheelsets, braking system and aerodynamic fairings, a level 5 Digital Automatic Coupler (DAC), automatic corner lockings and electronic components such as WOBU or LOBU were shown.
Extended Market Wagon (EMW) is equipped with a DAC and its DACcontroller. DAC functionalities will be demonstrated on the InnoTrans 2022 bycoupling and uncoupling the EMW from the Loco-board which will be equipped withanother DAC as a counterpart. The DAC controller consists of the DAC control, DACsupply, DAC interface and wOBU communications. All together allows the controlof the DACs through the Driver Desk from the Loco.
The Shif2Rail,IP5, FR8RAIL IV Technical Demonstrator, Tatravagónka Core Market Wagon (CMW), get its finishing touches for the InnoTrans 2022 in Berlin. This includes branding the wagon with ERJU acknowledgements and getting it ready for its journey to Berlin, installing the VVAC+ telematic and electrification components, the FR8RAILbogies as well as the DELLNER components for the Digital Automated Coupler(DAC). The coupler head will be installed directly in Berlin.
Come and visit us at the InnoTrans 2022. In the outside area at booth T04/17 you can have a look at the brand new prototype of the Extended Market Wagon developed in FR8RAIL IV.
The DLR on-board condition monitoring system has just been installed in the Extended Market Wagon (EMW), which will be demonstrated on the InnoTrans 2022. The system consists of a data processing unit (picture), a positioning unit (global navigation satellite system + inertial measurement unit), and accelerometers and temperature sensor at each axle box. The system is used to continuously assess the condition of the wheelsets and railway tracks and thus enables condition based and predictive maintenance schemes.
Just finished the measurement campaign of extensive aerodynamic investigations for the #next_generation_freight_wagon in the Crosswind Simulation Facility (#SWG) at #DLR #Göttingen. The aerodynamic measures for an optimised design provide a significant reduction of the aerodynamic drag and overall #carbon_footprint in future #freight_railtransport.
Final preparations are underway for the DLR FR8-LAB’s maiden rail voyage.The shipping container - outfitted with measurement equipment and solar power -will investigate the aerodynamics of freight trains,discovering new ways to improve their operational efficiency and safety. The container will be transported as part of regular rail freight transport within the next view month. #Shift2Rail #FR8RAILIV #Sustainability #Aerodynamics
#Shift2Rail #FR8RAILIV #Sustainability #Aerodynamics
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