WA 1 - Long-term needs and socio-economic research and system platform demonstrators
Create knowledge of success factors for a future railway system based on customer needs and mobility behaviour of users, and better understanding of key trends such as urbanisation, demographic changes, ageing of society, and hyper-connectivity. Definition of the four System Platform Demonstrators (SPDs): Freight, Urban, Regional and High Speed.
Implementation within CCA projects
The objectives of WP 2 are to:
- specify relevant societal needs/values, target groups and implementation factors to which S2R targets and activities need to be compared;
- analyse the obstacles of the current railway system to attract more passengers and to isolate the single and combined influence of different factors, which will be a quick-win starting point to customer attractiveness;
- present which customer requirements and future needs have to be taken into consideration in any further activities of the railway system to get a success story today and in the future.
The objective of WP3 is to define the four System Platform Demonstrators (SPDs) that will be used to demonstrate the effects of the Shift2Rail (S2R) activities. The four SPDs to be defined will cover the analysis of high-speed/mainline passenger rail, regional passenger rail, urban/suburban passenger rail and rail freight. For each SPD, important use cases will be defined to allow an analysis of the broad range of S2R activities.
WP2 - Long-term Changes in Future Needs
With increasing populations, increasing urbanisation, and the increasing mobilisation of populations, rail based transport needs to advance itself to a stage where it can comfortably handle these increases, while at the same time, allow for the inevitable disruptions and disturbances that take place.
Long-term needs in rail transport are dependent on the future requirements of the users and the technology available to users, which themselves will be based on what the currents trends are and how these trends develop over the coming years.
WP3 - Customer Requirements
Perform an analysis, diagnosis and find the dimension of the present and future needs of European railway passengers. Also, study the standards of service expected by the train users on all scales of the proposed analysis (urban, regional, long distance - conventional and high speed).
WP4 - Mega-trends and Scenarios for 2022, 2030 and 2050
Trend analysis aims to get a future perspective of the research object and for that beside Mega-trends, that cannot be rejected and influence every part of our life in different matters and characteristics it´s the challenge to find and describe influencing factors out of these Mega-trends and connect it to the surveyed issue.
After the identification of these influencing factors the development of scenarios using these influencing factors will be the next step and put them together to a future perspective of the NEAR2050. This future perspective, a “set of pictures”, a “story” describing the future has to be verified by using expert interviews and statistical methods, using trend analysis software.
To translate the results in content, that is easy to understand and motivate to follow up next steps like derive innovations from this future needs the future perspective will be described using the methods storytelling and visual recording.
WP5 - What Happens if Car Usage is Reduced by 10%
Analysis of passenger willingness to change mode of transport, in this case, to the train (on all the journey types being studied; urban, regional and long distance).
WP6 - Match the Outcomes with the Objectives of S2R Master Plan
The major goal of this work package is to match the results of all previous work packages with the objectives of S2R Master Plan. For that, all outcomes (e.g. influence factors, scenarios, Mega-trends, etc.) will be collected and connections, discrepancies and conclusions will be worked out to have a harmonized and verified summary of all project content.
Main deliverable will be a proposal for change and/or addition in the S2R Master Plan. This proposal for change will include detailed comments and recommendations for the adaption of the S2R Master Plan, by showing different options for further development.
WP2 - Socio-Economic Impact
Societal objectives, technological and behavioural trends and the assessment of how the railways and the whole transport sector can interact, respond and also be a driver of change is important for policy makers about to commit investment in assets with such longevity as rail or infrastructure. How may potentially disruptive new technologies, that undoubtedly will accompany the 4th industrial revolution, impact the mobility patterns of people and what will the continuing globalisation mean for trade patterns and global supply chains? The aim of long term needs and outside perspective research outlined in the S2R MAAP is to identify future trends and liaise them with S2R, thus bringing a perspective leading to 2050 on the S2R activities. The objectives of WP 2 are to:
Evaluate the rail system’s as well as S2R’s possible contribution to achieve societal objectives;
Analyse the obstacles of the current railway system to attract more freight customers and to isolate the single and combined influence of different factors, which will be a quick-win starting point to customer attractiveness;
Present which customer requirements and future needs have to be taken into consideration in any further activities of the railway system to get a success story today and in the future.
By using the future customer needs and expectations scenarios are defined to identify the System Platform Demonstrators (SPD) for S2R. Those scenarios are identified on the basis of the today’s equivalent scenario to estimate the effect on the modal split for passenger or freight rail transport. Use cases are selected for each market segment, high-speed/mainline passenger rail, regional passenger rail, urban/suburban passenger rail and rail freight, this will enable concrete results on societal effects of a broad range of S2R innovations. The following four applications will be analysed:
SPD application for high-speed/mainline passenger rail
SPD application for regional passenger rail
SPD application for urban/suburban passenger rail
SPD application for rail freight
WA 3 - Safety, Standardisation, Smart Maintenance, Smart Materials & Virtual certification
3.1. Safety - Perform a global approach to safety of the railway system. Manage safety levels of the existing railway system, Quantify the safety improvements carried out in Shift2Rail TDs.
3.2. Standardisation - Coordinate and address standardisation issues for all IPs, to ensure it is possible to meet overall Shift2Rail targets.
3.3. Smart Maintenance - Lower maintenance costs by using new knowledge opportunities on vehicle condition thanks to digitalisation. This will have a marked impact on reliability, availability and LCCs, and thus on the attractiveness and competitiveness of rail traffic.
3.4. Smart Materials - Study and evaluate the maturity of smart materials in other sectors, e.g. nano materials and self-healing, adaptive and active materials. Propose possible technology transfer for application in the railway sector.
3.5. Virtual certification - New methodology and tools to implement more virtual validation and authorisation of the components, subsystems and systems transfer of tests from on-track train testing to bench testing and simulations.
Implementation within CCA projects
WP4 - Management of the safety of the railway system based on risk assessment
This WP is dealing with the management of the safety of the railway system based on the results of a risk assessment. The objectives of this WP are:
- To develop set of universal railway safety key performance indicators.
- To develop monitoring system for obstacle (vehicle, human and big animal) detection on tracks
- To develop a global risk assessment framework that takes into consideration the probability of hazard occurrence and infrastructure resilience based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data obtained through different inspection/monitoring strategies, e.g. regular visual inspections, regular non-destructive testing.
WP3 - Decision Support Tool
- To develop a decision support tool to support infrastructure and operations managers to plan railway network assets and operations in an integrated manner (or to take the good decisions to manage the safety of the railway system at a global level in each situation). The decision support tool will be based upon a safety management process that can guide collaborative decision making activities between operations and infrastructure managers. Additionally, the decision support system will be based upon an integrated mobility systematic that allows for quick micro-simulation based experiments to understand different network conditions and intervene appropriate and timely.
- Technically, the decision support tool will be based upon an information management system that supports different existing standards, such as RailML, IFCRail, and CityGml. Additionally, a modular GIS based graphical user interface will be provided that allows collaborative interactions with the micro-simulation within a web based decision support environment. Additionally, GIS based visualization modules will be provided that represent outcomes of microsimulations, machine learning efforts, and corresponding heuristics to decision makers. All development work in this work package will be conducted based on state-of-the-art Web 2.0 software development methods and be provided as Open Source modules that will allow for an easy integration in custom tailored decision support tools existing or newly to be developed at railway agencies.
WP4 - Demonstration and Implementation
In this Work Package the R&D providers will demonstrate the project outputs on live railways operated by the two IM’s. These demonstration projects will ensure that the outputs from the project will be implemented in the practice of infrastructure management within and beyond the life of the project. To ensure this is achieved the Work Package is organised into the following tasks; (i) Case Study 1 – The Safety Framework will be tested on long distance corridor on the TEN-T Network. (ii) Case Study 2 – The Safety Framework will be tested on a complex partial section of the TEN-T Network. (iii) New techniques for object detection will be demonstrated in Norway, Ireland and Croatia and, (iv) Guideline documents will be provided on project outputs.
The technologies developed in the S2R projects shall be standardised in an efficient and fast process by a harmonised process. This WP will
- Assess the standardisation potential of Shift2Rail expected outcomes
- Propose and implement innovative and optimised standardisation processes
- Provide guidelines, template and support to TD leaders for standard drafting
- Monitor progress in standardisation activities in liaison with standardisation bodies and professional organisations.
Approaches and concepts for smart and condition-based maintenance are harmonized between the five IPs to achieve a maximum efficiency. WP6 is divided into three topics each with specific objective:
- Smart maintenance concept for the whole railway system
- Condition based maintenance for passenger trains
- Integrated infrastructure & rolling stock data management for smart maintenances
WP2 - Smart Maintenance for Rolling Stock
The aim of WP2 of the SMaRTE project is to investigate the use of a CBM approach to develop the most suitable solutions for predictive and corrective maintenance in railway vehicles. This will build in the experiences from other industry sectors particularly with reference to the knowledge generated in the aerospace field. Technically one of the key novelties of this project is the intelligent analysis of condition data to identify trends and predict future train behaviour and component degradation/failures.
The deliverables from this Work Package will provide a multi-objective optimisation of a rolling stock maintenance strategy to the railway industry by proposing the prototype components of CBM systems. This will contribute to prompt decision making allowing the rail industry to increase the reliability of the operational performance of the passenger trains, optimise maintenance activities and to reduce maintenance costs; which will ultimately improve railway services for users and operators.
Application of these tools will be demonstrated on a range of vehicle components to illustrate how they can be used to optimise individual rolling stock maintenance, improve maintenance practices and support, reduce unplanned maintenance through proactive decision support, reduce material and labour, increases vehicle availability and reduce costs.
As outlined in the S2R Multi-Annual Action Plan (MAAP) a technology and impact assessment plan is vital to ensure that the activities carried out under S2R are delivering the expected benefits. This should include the specific methods and metrics by which the impacts are measured and achieved. In SMaRTE we will include methods to show that the specific proposals developed in the project have a clear business and financial case, with barriers to implementation identified and solutions proposed.
The objectives of this work package are to:
- Develop metrics to demonstrate the impact of the solutions / approaches developed in the project in line with achieving the relevant KPIs of the S2R JU. With respect to the call document and the MAAP, the proposals outlined in this project will primarily contribute towards cost reduction (KPI1 in the call; MP4 and MP5 in the MAAP), and increased reliability and availability of rolling stock and increased quality / attractiveness of the rail system / mode shift (KPI3 in the call and MP1, MP3 and MP6 in the MAAP).
- Establish the business case for the proposed innovations to demonstrate that the solutions generate an overall net benefit to society. The outputs will be expressed as a set of net present values.
- Establish the financial case to demonstrate viability for the different parts of industry, taking account of the fact that costs may be imposed on one part of the system, whereas benefits may accrue elsewhere.
The impact assessment work package has been scaled according to the size of the overall budget. The analysis will be conducted for the case studies set out in work packages WP2 and WP3, with high level estimates made of extrapolations of benefits, assuming the solutions are rolled out more widely across Europe.
Note that the data to support the impact assessment comes from the main work packages, WP2 and WP3. Thus there are tasks within those work packages relating to impact. The current work package takes data from WP2 and WP3 and draws this together into an overall impact assessment in WP4.
WP4 - Virtual Certification: state of the art and evaluation of the benefits
Virtual Certification: state of the art and evaluation of the benefits will aim to give a synthetic overview of how a mixed virtual/experimental approach could be used within the authorization process for putting a train into service and how it can help the economic and industrial performance of the sector. The specific objectives of this WP are:
- To give a wide state-of-the-art on available technical and scientific methods and industrial processes when using simulations to validate a new design of a component, a sub-system or a whole system like a train, and, on the other side, to conduct a gap analysis and a barriers identification for virtual certification in the different railway technical domains.
- To quantify the potential benefits to the rail industry from the applications of virtual certification.
WP5 - Virtual Certification: proposal and engagement with relevant stakeholders
Virtual Certification: proposal and engagement with relevant stakeholders works towards giving recommendations on how to use simulations within the authorization process for putting a train into service and at helping to introduce in the standards and in the regulation framework of the railway rolling stock sector the possibility of using mixed virtual/experimental processes. The specific objectives of this WP are:
- To coordinate the virtual certification activities led within IP1 and IP2;
- To propose generic methods and to give recommendations for practical industrial processes for virtual certification, based on results from WP4, a coordinated work with IP1 and IP2, and also discussions with approval bodies and involved stakeholders of the sector;
- To coordinate the dissemination activities towards the standardization authorities.
WA 4 - Smart Mobility
4.1. Smart Planning - Improve planning activities of various stakeholders in the railway system by means of precise railway simulation. Its concept will cover all phases of railway planning and include an outlook on operation.
4.2. I2M (Integrated Mobility Management) - Specification and implementation of substructures needed for automated message exchanges between Freight operations and Traffic management systems via the Integration Layer.
Implementation within CCA projects
WP2 - Development of a basic smart planning model
The objectives of this work package are:
- To provide an overview of recent topics on planning activities, state-of-practice usage of simulation in planning processes and state-of-the-art smart planning research
- To provide an overview of relevant use cases and available/usable data sets
- To define the necessary scope of innovation for a comprehensive smart planning tool
WP3 - Enhancement of the basic model to disruptions and elaboration of case studies
The objectives of this work package are to analyse and assess the impact of disruptions and time buffers in planning processes. The specific objectives are:
- Conduct comprehensive analyses of different disruption types
- Evaluate efficiency of existing time buffers
- Model the impact of disruptions
- Enhance (expand) the developed prototype by including disruptions
- Use the prototype on examples with a European focus
- To use Open Track tool for micro-simulations, to deal with dispatching rules, connections between trains and circulation of train sets. The application programming interface (API) offers one the opportunity to influence the simulation run at any second of its calculation. Using this unique feature it is possible to reschedule trains by giving speed aspects to be respected
- To provide the support to Infrastructure Managers in order to achieve maximum amount of time slots for railway undertakings and for punctual operation.
- To simulate the behaviour of the reality to prove that the optimization algorithm provides suitable solutions within a short period of time.
- To bring together information technologies from multiple domains to create a system to manage, analyse and interpret large data generated from infrastructure maintenance schemes
WP7 - Integrated Mobility
I2M will provide a step change towards seamless fully-automated process integration of railway related services and other modes of transport. A first phase focusses on enhancing the system designed under X2RAIL-2 WP6 (Traffic Management System) with all necessary constituents needed to link Freight Operations to the overall process. In particular the works executed under this work program shall deliver:
- Increase of transport capacity, reliability and reduced cost of Rail Freight Operations through application of advanced Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environment developed in X2RAIL-2 WP6 to integrate Freight Operations
- Growth of the Rail Freight Transportation segment using seamless information exchange routines between internal and external clients and services thus increasing Rail Freight Transportation Capacity
- Decreased cost of Rail Freight Management processes applying advanced , high efficient and automated Business Logic and decision support tools
- Increased overall line capacity and punctuality of Freight trains based on the introduction of high precision improved estimated time of arrival calculation logic and slot planning/management tools
WP2 - Smart Planning: Feasibility Studies
Smart Planning: Feasibility Studies pursues the goal of gathering information on and assessing the feasibility of applying and extending the simulation approach developed in PLASA to a number of relevant use cases. It is split up into 3 sub areas, in which the objectives are:
- Dealing with incomplete data
- Interplay between microscopic and macroscopic simulation
- Operational planning (intraday)
WP3 - Smart Planning: Simulation tool development and case studies
Smart Planning: Simulation tool development and case studies looks to further develop some aspects of the PLASA simulation tool, and to implement case studies based on the results of WP2.
WP11 - Integrated Mobility Management – Interfaces
This WP delivers the interface specifications for the communication between traffic management (IP2 TD2.9), freight operation services (IP5) and asset management operations (IP3) via the TMS Integration Layer. The works focus on:
• Specification of the interfaces between integration layer and TMS application services, asset management and freight related business services;
• Evaluation of a data structure for data management of future TMS integrating freight and asset related status information with specific data elements for rail infrastructure and rolling stock;
• Proposal of amendments of the Conceptual Data Model (CDM) when required;
• Monitor progress of the S2R OC project S2R-OC-IP2-02-2019 to secure alignment of the interface architecture;
• Monitor progress and outputs of interfacing and aligned projects, especially S2R-CFM-IPX-CCA-01-2019. Though some of this will be performed in WP1, the interface with WP11 will be significant and specific tasks may be given to the team;
• Proof of concept by development of software prototypes for freight services and commuter rail operations connected to TMS increasing the maturity of the interface specifications.
WP12 - Integration of Business Services – Dangerous Goods Management
Within the activities related to the topic Integration of Business Services, this WP will define the specifications and develop a prototype concerning the management of dangerous goods. The prototype will leverage on the interfaces specifications carried on in the S2R OC project SR2-OC-IP2-02-2019, in FINE-2 WP1 and on the requirements specifications developed in the WP7 of the S2R IMPACT-2 project.
Scope of work will be the development of a complete TRL 3/4 prototype (composed of on board devices, a transmission system , an HMI (Human Machine Interface) at TMS level to present the data to the operator and to be used as decision support system. The goal of the work is to develop a complete prototype system aimed at demonstrating enhancements for the following high level objectives: 1) Increase the safety level of dangerous goods rail transport 2) Reduce maintenance costs 3) Increase wagon traceability.
The WP will also monitor progress and outputs of interfacing and aligned projects.
WP13 - Integration of Business Services – Container Management
The overall objective is to enhance the Thales prototypes from the S2R project IMPACT-2 (WP7) to communicate through the Shift2Rail integration layer using the interfaces and data elements specified in FINE-2 WP11. The prototype describes the scenario for interaction between a Container Management System (CMS) and TMS with the goal to provide smooth and fast delivery of containers to ports. The TMS provides the CMS with up to date and accurate information on train status which enables the CMS to provide up to date and accurate information on container status at any time.
WP13 will build upon the output of IMPACT-2 WP7, where a prototype integrated TMS with a Container Management System using UIC 407.1 TAF/TAP, and a simple integration layer prototype bespoke for the project. Although the WP13 prototype will still connect via the same integration layer prototype, it will also open up this layer to facilitate connection to the S2R Open Call S2R-OC-IP2-O2-2019 prototype.
The WP will also monitor progress and outputs of interfacing and aligned projects.
WP14 - Advanced Business Services Specification
The overall objective is to provide Use Case and interface specifications for what constitute Advanced Business Services (ABS) in the S2R arena, primarily for Traffic Management System (TMS) applications and addressing traffic prediction, real-time control of the operation, maintenance planning and operational decision support features. As a Cross-Cutting Activity (CCA), the intention is to scan the horizon outside of S2R IP2 and TMS Users to identify additional business intelligence and identify how these can be used to advance TMS operation by providing new or additional data for conflict resolution and passenger-centric decision making. ABS can be viewed as the result of the integration of several pieces of business intelligence to achieve a higher value than the individual services such as those within an IP silo) would separately achieve. Logically this would create an integration layer of integration layers.
The works will focus on the specification of useful interfaces between S2R IPs and External Data sources and useful Use Cases which combine the data to provide new or enhanced ABS applications. The work will also monitor progress of the S2R projects S2R-CFM-IPX/CCA-01-2019 and S2R-OC-IP2-02-2019 and propose amendments of the Conceptual Data Model (CDM) and interface architecture when required. An assessment will be made of what combinations are feasible and will provide value to Infrastructure Managers, TMS Operators and importantly other users such as drivers, passengers, field operations, station staff and external service providers. To assist with the creation of prototypes, Use Cases and HMIs will be drawn up and a description of an integrating data model (referred to as the integration layer) will be established.
WP15 - Advanced Business Services Prototype Development
The overall objective is to demonstrate the operational value that can be derived through Advanced Business Services (ABS). This will be achieved through the development of prototypes, to TRL 6, that will connect a minimum of two separate Shift2Rail integration layers to derive business value.
Utilising the outputs of WP14, it is anticipated that workshops, hackathons, fast initial prototyping or similar will be held to quantify values and the feasibility of some Shift2Rail Business Service integrations prior to the selection and development of full prototypes.
WA 5 - Energy and Sustainability
5.1. Energy - Achieve and assess the overall energy reduction on all ITDs and SPDs, and demonstrate cost-effectiveness and energy-saving features. Help and support all energy-saving-related work across IPs and TDs. Stimulate the emergence of pre-normative texts, when needed, to pave the way for a European shared understanding of energy figures in railways. Link energy and sustainability actions with existing initiatives outside Shift2Rail, in order to align understanding and positions from railways and energy stakeholders.
5.2. Noise - Develop future methods for predicting overall noise and vibration performance at system level, with proper ranking and characterisation of each contributing source, so as to include different combinations of entire vehicles and infrastructure, and to optimise cost-benefit scenarios as well as exposure and comfort. Ensure that the NoV aspects are properly considered and integrated in all relevant TDs within the different IPs of Shift2Rail.
Implementation within CCA projects
WP02 - Interface with other Shift2Rail Groups and External Energy Groups
The objective of this work package is to establish energy norms with respect to existing state of the art and future developments, energy strategic views and needs of S2R internal and external stakeholders. The energy requirements for passenger trains resulting from existing normative specifications, guidelines and other stakeholders will be analysed. This includes the results of Roll2Rail and will be carried out in order to derive a strategy and future rules for the specification of energy efficiency. Recommendations on urban train norms and regulations will also be developed.
Pre-normative work will provide energy related marketing studies and eco labelling proposals. Energy efficient technologies and strategies from a whole life cycle approach will be analysed.
The goal of this work package is to achieve:
- A strategic view integrating European transport and environment policies and recommendations;
- An interface on norms & regulation inputs to CEN and CENELEC for energy matters;
- A marketing understanding on energy related questions: existing and future "business rules" to allow emergence of new low consumption solutions between energy stakeholders (industry, operators, IM, energy providers, etc.);
- A common approach on eco labelling, including inputs from European R&D projects and to support modal shift by linking eco labelling to multi-modal habit changes for global energy/CO2 savings for Europe.
WP03 - Energy Calculation Methodology
6The objective of this work package is to develop the methodology for assessing the overall energy reduction of the S2R innovations carried out within the S2R TDs. The work package will be an input to work package 4 where the assessment is carried out.
Further objectives are:
- To support the S2R TD leaders in all IPs in the definition of sub-level key performance indicators (KPI) of their TD with respect to energy savings;
- To supply the TD leaders with methodologies to assess the energy savings.
WP04 - Assessment of energy improvement
The work package 4 will be able to deliver quantified energy performances of addressed TDs. The existing tools of the S2R FINE 1 participants and those developed in collaboration via S2R open calls (notably the OPEUS project) will be used to quantify improvements on energy consumption.
Further objectives are:
- Integration of results provided by the S2R TDs via work package 3;
- Translation of sublevel KPIs into the S2R energy KPI;
- Evaluation and update of the S2R energy KPI;
- Delivery of the final energy related results achieved by S2R for the four SPDs.
WP05 - Technical Assessment and integration on system level of Noise & Vibration (N&V)
The purpose of this work package is to identify all N&V relevant components included in the S2R TDs and to set and follow up N&V targets for each S2R TD Leader in order to achieve an optimal result on overall system level.
WP06 - Traffic noise scenarios and baseline for evaluation and monitoring noise effects of S2R innovations
The objective of this work package is to define noise baseline and built traffic-scenarios t for pass-by as well of parking and stand still mode of trains to serve as reference for the evaluation and monitoring of noise effects at the end of the activities of the S2R CCA Work Area 5 planned in the S2R MAAP.
The objectives of this work package are:
- The definition of different traffic scenarios (traffic mix, day/night split etc.) for the pass-by noise evaluation for each traffic segment (high speed, long-distance trains, regional and freight) for specified train-track configurations: These scenarios will be used as input parameters for N&V calculation as well to monitor and evaluate the mitigation effects compared to the state of the art on realistic conditions including their cost benefit ratios with the final phase of S2R.
- With respect to noise monitoring, typical situations of the TEN (Trans-European Transport Network) Rail Freight Corridor “A (Rotterdam-Genoa)” are suggested, to serve exemplarily as demonstrator for evaluating the different noise mitigation effects of the different technologies and their combination for a freight case. Further, a long term vision on the traffic increase and their impacts to different scenarios change will be given.
- In addition to the scenarios with moving trains, definition of typical scenarios for parked-train and stand-still modes have to be developed.
- A close cooperation with DESTINATE must be built up for collaboration on the needed input parameters for the cost benefit ratio methodology and calculations to deduce the most effective measure mixture.
WP07 - Interior Noise modelling
The objective of this work package is to develop methodologies for efficient and accurate predictions of interior noise, including a modular framework to handle sources, transmission paths and results from existing simulation tools. Also, the work package should assess state of the art methodologies and define validation schemes for new methodologies, in part developed by DESTINATE.
WP08 - Sources and assemblies
The objective of this work package is to develop characterisation and specification methodologies for vibro-acoustic sources and train assemblies. Using these methodologies will help to improve the accuracy of prediction models developed in S2R and to standardize and to provide standardized models to favour its deployment. To obtain these methodologies it will be needed:
- To assess, improve and develop methodologies needed for the characterisation and specification of vibro-acoustic sources and train assemblies
- To validate the characterisation methodologies with measurements of sources and train assemblies
- To standardize the characterisation and specifications.
WP09 - New methodologies and technologies
The objective of the work package is to support the development of new tools for auralisation and visualisation for an efficient demonstration and selection of the best means and appropriate usage of noise control improvements. The state of the art in visualisation and auralisation techniques and applications shall be compiled. A specification of the dedicated technology require
WP01 - Urban rail systems energy requirements
To define urban rail systems energy requirements in Europe.
WP02 - Simulation model and tool development
Developing a simulation model for the assessment of energy consumption and energy losses of different types of electrical rail vehicles using typical standardised duty cycles.
Pure diesel and hybrid diesel rail vehicle architectures were already modelled in CleanER-D using the SP7 Tool. This WP will build on these to expand the modelling capability of the tool to electric traction.
The calculations are based on physically-oriented models describing the longitudinal dynamics of the different kinds of electrical rail vehicles (i.e. EMUs and locomotives) with their operation-specific constrains:
- Theoretical modelling of the longitudinal dynamics of electrically-driven rail vehicles;
- Definition of component characteristics and system parameters;
- Capability to perform dynamic simulations using typical duty cycles to determine energy consumption, energy losses and system efficiencies;
WP03 - Reference scenarios simulation
- To set up and describe four reference scenarios corresponding to urban, regional, high speed and freight operations;
- To perform simulations on those scenarios assessing the energy consumption profile of different innovations including those from the S2R lighthouse projects
- To identify, assess and compare the different driver assistance systems (DAS) available and their relevance to the four reference scenarios defined;
- To develop efficient and feasible driving strategies and energy management approaches for railway vehicles
WP05 - In-vehicle energy losses study
This WP aims at investigating the energy losses within the traction chain, using the duty cycles defined in previous projects (specifically CleanER-D) and the urban duty cycles defined in WP1. Influence on energy consumption due to traction auxiliaries particularly cooling needs, will be evaluated on the different operational states (acceleration, steady state, braking and parking). The calculations will be based on the OPEUS physical model describing the longitudinal dynamics of the different types of rail vehicles and their architectures. Two main objectives are envisaged:
- To investigate energy losses within the vehicle traction chain;
- To carry out a sensitivity analysis investigating the importance and impact of different vehicle parameters and recommending suitable measures for losses reduction.
WP06 - Advanced ESSs study
To assess the role and potential in optimising energy usage of innovative technologies such as advanced ESSs.
WP07 - Global vision of energy in railways
To describe and critique current energy usage in railways providing a comprehensive outlook of its prospects including the potential pivotal role of introducing smart management to rail networks.
WP2 - Requirement analysis and assessment
This work package will establish the foundation for the development work in WP3. A critical review of current methodologies, techniques, models and technologies relevant for the development work is carried out. Requirements to ensure an efficient development are compiled. A cooperation with the complementary project S2R-CFM-CCA-02-2015 is planned to exchange information and ensure efficient requirement setting.
WP3 - Development of methodologies, tools and technologies for noise prediction and mitigation
WP3 is led by MBBM-RAIL, linked third party of the beneficiary MBBM. Within this wok package, the cost-benefit models, the interior noise simulation model, the techniques to measure and quantify the noise sources and the auralization techniques will be developed. This work package will expand the state-of-the-art concerning interior noise modeling and auralization. It is planned to cooperate with the complementary project S2R-CFM-CCA-02-2015. The work package benefits from the state-of-the-art review under WP2 and is supported by the validation of the methods in WP4. It is thus, the core work package of the project. A close relation to the other work packages is ensured by a participation of all partners in WP2, WP3 and WP4 and focusing of each partner to certain tasks.
The objectives of WP3 are:
- The evaluation and the monitoring of impact on traffic noise scenarios including the development of improved models for calculation of cost-effectiveness of railway N&V mitigation measures and the evaluation of impact of N&V mitigation measures for defined traffic noise scenario.
- The development of a novel and innovative interior railway noise simulation model based on the operational transfer path analysis (OTPA).
- The specification of methodologies for source and sub-assembly characterization.
- The development of new technologies for auralization and visualization of noise scenarios in an
WP4 - Validation and integration of proposed solutions
The aim of this work package is to validate the developed methodology for assessing the cost-effectiveness of mitigation technologies and measures.
The validation will include the source characterization validation as well as the interior noise model validation.
STAV, as the industrial partner and leader of the WP will provide the reference vehicle where the validation will be carried out and will assure the feasibility of the methodology application on an industrial environment.
Finally, an overall system approach guidelines for cost-effective noise and vibration management will be done.
It is planned to cooperate with the complementary project S2R-CFM-CCA-02-2015.
WP02 - Strategic view on energy efficiency
The objective of this WP is to review and adopt the methodology for assessing the improved energy efficiency by S2R innovations carried out within the S2R TDs. The WP2 outputs will feed WP3 where the assessment is carried out. Amendments of the methodology are required for new and adopted TDs. Another objective is the suggestion of European standards for energy assessment considering new technologies.
WP03 - Assessing energy improvement theoretically
The objective of this WP is assess the overall energy reduction on the S2R TDs. This WP is able to deliver theoretical quantified energy performances of addressed TDs. The existing tools of the S2R FINE-2 participants (see example list in ROLL2RAIL Deliverable 8.2) and those developed in collaboration via S2R open calls (notably the S2R open call “S2R-OC-CCA-02-2015 Energy usage, generation and saving approaches” – OPEUS) are used to quantify improvements on energy consumption. This WP includes: Collection of sub-level KPIs, translation of sub-level KPIs into the S2R energy KPI and evaluation and update of the S2R energy KPI.
WP04 - Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and optimization potentials
In regional and suburban applications, the energy demand of rail vehicles is strongly depending on comfort energy demand, i.e. thermal energy demand for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). Under very cold or very hot conditions the HVAC energy demand of light rail, suburban, and regional vehicles may even exceed the energy demand for traction. This is critical especially in the field of battery-powered vehicles, as with increasing energy demand for HVAC the range is strongly reduced. Thus, the focus of this WP is on evaluation and benchmarking of smart control and waste heat usage approaches to reduce worst case energy consumption of HVAC systems in battery electric multiple units (BEMU).
Based on operators’ feedbacks it is known that some energy saving measures are installed in a way, that they impair the thermal comfort or a proper regulation of thermal parameters. In future analysis outside of FINE-2 it will therefore be necessary, to develop tools and methodologies that allow the assessment and optimisation of all influences on the passenger’s comfort, the energy efficiency and the reliability in parallel. FINE-2 thus identifies promising energy saving measures for this analysis.
The main objectives are:
• To define the state-of-the-art of the HVAC technology, and to define additional sub-level KPIs as well as energy savings evaluation methods;
• To analyse the HVAC related energy saving potentials along a train journey derived from smart control and utilisation of waste heat / Electro-Dynamic (ED) braking energy in BEMU;
• To identify promising energy saving measures for future analysis concerning their impact on thermal comfort and/or the reliability of the HVAC units in operation.
WP05 - Assessing energy improvement by measurement in specific demonstrators
The objective of this WP is the evaluation of energy savings achieved on an urban scenario by real measurements and their assessment comparison against theoretically estimated values. Technologies such as the Hybrid SiC traction converter, developed as part of the PINTA 1 S2R project, and the DAS developed among other CAF project’s not included in Shift2Rail program will be analysed. The OPEUS Tool developed in the OPEUS project will be used as much as possible in the definition of the reference scenarios (speed profiles and energy consumption). This methodology will be also used to evaluate SiC Hybrid energy savings in future S2R 2020 Call For Members IP1 project. Additionally, in order to optimise the DAS calculations for urban scenarios, a methodology to define the running resistance of the vehicles while running through tunnels of different characteristics will be defined. Finally, an evaluation of the present auxiliary management strategy will be carried out in order to identify possible improvement areas.
WP06 - Exterior noise tools validation
The objectives of this work package are:
• To validate methodologies and tools used to simulate the exterior noise radiated by equipment (wheel/rail contact not included) in terms of source strength, source directivity and integration effects due to installation in the train;
• To propose a process to for acceptance of industrial simulation tools to be used for exterior noise simulations;
• To obtain a methodology to assess the uncertainty of exterior noise simulations (pass-by including rolling noise and standstill cases).
WP07 - Noise sources separation
The objectives of this work package are:
• To support the development of innovative techniques to separate and define the sound power level and directivity of the different types of acoustic sources during pass-by at constant speed of a train;
• To support both the simplification and the enhancement of methodologies for separation of the track versus the vehicle part of the rolling noise. Validation and data collection including several test scenarios is expected.
A commonly accepted, practical and validated prediction tool for ground-vibration impact studies will be developed. Based on a combination of measurements and simulations, the frequency-based simulation tool will also allow the inclusion of a database of typical emission and transmission spectra for different train, track and ground parameters, and building types. Therefore the model can be used for both rough estimations and detailed analysis of the train-induced vibrations inside a building.
For the development of the prediction tool, the FINE-2 project will work in a close cooperation with another S2R project anticipated to start in 2020. In the FINE-2 project, model requirements will be specified, calculation models will be proposed, measurements will be performed, and the model will be validated. The S2R project anticipated to start in 2020will do the development of further models, the programming and the testing of the tool. The prediction tool will be used by vibration experts for the planning of the construction or the upgrading of railway lines. The project is mainly focused on a surface-track model but there should be the option to include also tunnels.
WP 9 covers two different workstreams on supporting new and innovative approaches to improve:
a) The acoustic design for the interior of future rolling stock by using innovative design methods and new materials and;
b) Computational auralisation and visualisation (A&V) tools for railway noise demonstrations of existing and new design features integrated in a real environment.
The objectives shall be reached both in close cooperation with two complementary S2R OCs projects, one including New Materials (S2R-OC-CAA-01-2019) and the other A&V (S2R 2020 Call).
Within Task 9.1 the WP will fulfill more stringent targets on noise reduction combined with a major mass reduction in vehicle designs the objectives of this task are to support and develop together with the corresponding S2R OC project new noise control design principles using inherent new material properties for robust, quiet and comfortable railway vehicles. This solution shall match and exceed the development of passenger comfort and acoustic performance in other modes of transport such as cars, busses and aircraft also in the future.
Within Task 9.2 these A&V tools shall enable a clear communication for vehicle manufacturers, operators, passengers and, in particular, the affected public and political bodies. The A&V software tools provide inter alia a solid base for a demonstration and comprehensible communication about concrete noise mitigation measures in large-scale projects or design features for railway systems between operators and concerned residents and enables manufacturer and operator to select between components for different interior or exterior noise performance.
WP10 - Technical assessment and monitoring
The purpose of this WP is to observe the development progress of S2R TDs relating to N&V, to communicate on reaching noise targets in accordance with vehicle scenarios defined in S2R FINE 1 Deliverable 5.3 and to assess the overall work done on noise in the S2R IPs on vehicle level.
Another objective of this WP is to demonstrate the noise impact on people adjacent to railways on the basis of traffic scenarios defined in S2R FINE 1 D6.1. As a result, a statement shall be made to what extent a large-scale application of the technologies developed in Shift2Rail could lead to a reduction of rail traffic noise emissions in Europe.
WP1 - Exterior noise simulation tools
To propose and validate methods for source characterization based on equivalent point sources (monopoles) including models for transmission paths.
WP2 - Pass-by noise source separation
The objective of this work stream is to develop novel and innovative techniques to get the sound power level and directivity of the different types of noise sources during pass by at constant speed of a train.
WP3 - Separation of track noise and vehicle noise
To develop and validate methods for separating the contributions of vehicle and track to rolling noise during train pass-by.
WP4 - Innovative materials for improved sound confort
In WP4 innovative approaches and materials designs for an improved interior sound comfort will be explored.
WP01 - Framework and prototype of the vibration prediction tool
WP02 - Supporting data and modelling for the vibration prediction tool
WP03 - Implementation of a user-friendly vibration prediction tool
WP04 - Auralisation and visualisation of railway noise