WA 1 - Long-term needs and socio-economic research and system platform demonstrators

Implementation within CCA projects


WP2 - Socio-Economics

The objectives of WP 2 are to:
  • specify relevant societal needs/values, target groups and implementation factors to which S2R targets and activities need to be compared;
  • analyse the obstacles of the current railway system to attract more passengers and to isolate the single and combined influence of different factors, which will be a quick-win starting point to customer attractiveness;
  • present which customer requirements and future needs have to be taken into consideration in any further activities of the railway system to get a success story today and in the future.

WP3 - SPD Definition

The objective of WP3 is to define the four System Platform Demonstrators (SPDs) that will be used to demonstrate the effects of the Shift2Rail (S2R) activities. The four SPDs to be defined will cover the analysis of high-speed/mainline passenger rail, regional passenger rail, urban/suburban passenger rail and rail freight. For each SPD, important use cases will be defined to allow an analysis of the broad range of S2R activities.

WP2 - Long-term Changes in Future Needs

With increasing populations, increasing urbanisation, and the increasing mobilisation of populations, rail based transport needs to advance itself to a stage where it can comfortably handle these increases, while at the same time, allow for the inevitable disruptions and disturbances that take place.
Long-term needs in rail transport are dependent on the future requirements of the users and the technology available to users, which themselves will be based on what the currents trends are and how these trends develop over the coming years.

WP3 - Customer Requirements

Perform an analysis, diagnosis and find the dimension of the present and future needs of European railway passengers. Also, study the standards of service expected by the train users on all scales of the proposed analysis (urban, regional, long distance - conventional and high speed).

WP4 - Mega-trends and Scenarios for 2022, 2030 and 2050

Trend analysis aims to get a future perspective of the research object and for that beside Mega-trends, that cannot be rejected and influence every part of our life in different matters and characteristics it´s the challenge to find and describe influencing factors out of these Mega-trends and connect it to the surveyed issue.
After the identification of these influencing factors the development of scenarios using these influencing factors will be the next step and put them together to a future perspective of the NEAR2050. This future perspective, a “set of pictures”, a “story” describing the future has to be verified by using expert interviews and statistical methods, using trend analysis software.
To translate the results in content, that is easy to understand and motivate to follow up next steps like derive innovations from this future needs the future perspective will be described using the methods storytelling and visual recording.

WP5 - What Happens if Car Usage is Reduced by 10%

Analysis of passenger willingness to change mode of transport, in this case, to the train (on all the journey types being studied; urban, regional and long distance).

WP6 - Match the Outcomes with the Objectives of S2R Master Plan

The major goal of this work package is to match the results of all previous work packages with the objectives of S2R Master Plan. For that, all outcomes (e.g. influence factors, scenarios, Mega-trends, etc.) will be collected and connections, discrepancies and conclusions will be worked out to have a harmonized and verified summary of all project content.
Main deliverable will be a proposal for change and/or addition in the S2R Master Plan. This proposal for change will include detailed comments and recommendations for the adaption of the S2R Master Plan, by showing different options for further development.

WP03 - Reference scenarios simulation

  • To set up and describe four reference scenarios corresponding to urban, regional, high speed and freight operations;
  • To perform simulations on those scenarios assessing the energy consumption profile of different innovations including those from the S2R lighthouse projects

WP2 - Socio-Economic Impact

Societal objectives, technological and behavioural trends and the assessment of how the railways and the whole transport sector can interact, respond and also be a driver of change is important for policy makers about to commit investment in assets with such longevity as rail or infrastructure. How may potentially disruptive new technologies, that undoubtedly will accompany the 4th industrial revolution, impact the mobility patterns of people and what will the continuing globalisation mean for trade patterns and global supply chains? The aim of long term needs and outside perspective research outlined in the S2R MAAP is to identify future trends and liaise them with S2R, thus bringing a perspective leading to 2050 on the S2R activities. The objectives of WP 2 are to:
Evaluate the rail system’s as well as S2R’s possible contribution to achieve societal objectives;
Analyse the obstacles of the current railway system to attract more freight customers and to isolate the single and combined influence of different factors, which will be a quick-win starting point to customer attractiveness;
Present which customer requirements and future needs have to be taken into consideration in any further activities of the railway system to get a success story today and in the future.

WP3 - SPD Implementation

By using the future customer needs and expectations scenarios are defined to identify the System Platform Demonstrators (SPD) for S2R. Those scenarios are identified on the basis of the today’s equivalent scenario to estimate the effect on the modal split for passenger or freight rail transport. Use cases are selected for each market segment, high-speed/mainline passenger rail, regional passenger rail, urban/suburban passenger rail and rail freight, this will enable concrete results on societal effects of a broad range of S2R innovations. The following four applications will be analysed:
SPD application for high-speed/mainline passenger rail
SPD application for regional passenger rail
SPD application for urban/suburban passenger rail
SPD application for rail freight

WP01 - Universal Cost Model 2.0

Technical innovations in running gear design, like new materials to reduce weight or active suspension to reduce track deterioration, do not easily find their way into the market nowadays

WA 2 - KPI method development and integrated assessment

Implementation within CCA projects


WP4 - KPI tree

The objective of the work package 4 is to show, how the expected results of the key Shift2Rail targets are achieved through the TDs’ work.
KPIs have to be defined in which the overall Shift2Rail targets: improved services for users and customer quality, reduced system costs, simplified business process and enhanced interoperability can be reflected. They have to be characterized in terms of their units, their lower level performance indicators and their relation to KPIs of capacity, reliability and life cycle costs (LCC).The result is an integrated KPI model that shows qualitatively the interdependencies of the KPIs horizontally between each other as well as vertically between low-level functional-technical parameters and high-level socio-economic objectives.

WP1 - Risk Assessment

  • To develop set of universal railway safety key performance indicators.
  • To develop monitoring system for obstacle (vehicle, human and big animal) detection on tracks
  • To develop a global risk assessment framework that takes into consideration the probability of hazard occurrence and infrastructure resilience based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data obtained through different inspection/monitoring strategies, e.g. regular visual inspections, regular non-destructive testing.

WP4 - Quantitative KPI-Tree and SPD integrated assessment

A tree of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI) is modelled and an integrated assessment of the impact of Shift2Rail and especially the effect on the SPD scenarios will be performed. The KPI tool and methodology will be used to capture and monitor the impact of Shift²Rail, the socio-economic effects will present the challenges and chances of tomorrow and the System Platform Demonstrators will be the basis for the demonstration of the changes between today and after Shift2Rail. All the three together have the potential to become an indispensable decision support for railway undertakings infrastructure managers and railway operators.

WP4 - Impact Assessment

As outlined in the S2R Multi-Annual Action Plan (MAAP) a technology and impact assessment plan is vital to ensure that the activities carried out under S2R are delivering the expected benefits. This should include the specific methods and metrics by which the impacts are measured and achieved. In SMaRTE we will include methods to show that the specific proposals developed in the project have a clear business and financial case, with barriers to implementation identified and solutions proposed.
The objectives of this work package are to:
  • Develop metrics to demonstrate the impact of the solutions / approaches developed in the project in line with achieving the relevant KPIs of the S2R JU. With respect to the call document and the MAAP, the proposals outlined in this project will primarily contribute towards cost reduction (KPI1 in the call; MP4 and MP5 in the MAAP), and increased reliability and availability of rolling stock and increased quality / attractiveness of the rail system / mode shift (KPI3 in the call and MP1, MP3 and MP6 in the MAAP).
  • Establish the business case for the proposed innovations to demonstrate that the solutions generate an overall net benefit to society. The outputs will be expressed as a set of net present values.
  • Establish the financial case to demonstrate viability for the different parts of industry, taking account of the fact that costs may be imposed on one part of the system, whereas benefits may accrue elsewhere.
The impact assessment work package has been scaled according to the size of the overall budget. The analysis will be conducted for the case studies set out in work packages WP2 and WP3, with high level estimates made of extrapolations of benefits, assuming the solutions are rolled out more widely across Europe.
Note that the data to support the impact assessment comes from the main work packages, WP2 and WP3. Thus there are tasks within those work packages relating to impact. The current work package takes data from WP2 and WP3 and draws this together into an overall impact assessment in WP4.

WP04 - Carbody – KPI and Homologation activities

WP4 looks to take special attention on KPI defined at the beginning of the Project, therefore the performances in terms of weight and manufacturability will be check in detail. In addition, homologation procedures and long-term activities along the project will be part of this WP.

WP08 - Evaluation of Running Gear Components

In this WP several demonstrators are foreseen to be developed, produced, tested and evaluated for the main development streams: Noise and Vibration reduction; Optimised Materials; Virtual certification.

WP09 - Brake System Design Phase

The aim of this WP is to provide an innovative point of view in new brakes technology. The strict collaboration in this WP will lead to a new generation of brakes system able to bridge the gap between environmental aims and market needs.

WP10 - Brake System Implementation Phase

WP11 - Brake System Test Phase

The aim of this WP is to provide an innovative point of view in new brakes technology. The strict collaboration in this WP will lead to a new generation of brakes system able to bridge the gap between environmental aims and market needs.

WP11 - Brake System Test Phase

The aim of this WP is to provide an innovative point of view in new brakes technology. The strict collaboration in this WP will lead to a new generation of brakes system able to bridge the gap between environmental aims and market needs.

WA 3 - Safety, Standardisation, Smart Maintenance, Smart Materials & Virtual certification

Implementation within CCA projects


WP4 - Management of the safety of the railway system based on risk assessment

This WP is dealing with the management of the safety of the railway system based on the results of a risk assessment. The objectives of this WP are:

WP3 - Decision Support Tool

  • To develop a decision support tool to support infrastructure and operations managers to plan railway network assets and operations in an integrated manner (or to take the good decisions to manage the safety of the railway system at a global level in each situation). The decision support tool will be based upon a safety management process that can guide collaborative decision making activities between operations and infrastructure managers. Additionally, the decision support system will be based upon an integrated mobility systematic that allows for quick micro-simulation based experiments to understand different network conditions and intervene appropriate and timely.
  • Technically, the decision support tool will be based upon an information management system that supports different existing standards, such as RailML, IFCRail, and CityGml. Additionally, a modular GIS based graphical user interface will be provided that allows collaborative interactions with the micro-simulation within a web based decision support environment. Additionally, GIS based visualization modules will be provided that represent outcomes of microsimulations, machine learning efforts, and corresponding heuristics to decision makers. All development work in this work package will be conducted based on state-of-the-art Web 2.0 software development methods and be provided as Open Source modules that will allow for an easy integration in custom tailored decision support tools existing or newly to be developed at railway agencies.

WP4 - Demonstration and Implementation

In this Work Package the R&D providers will demonstrate the project outputs on live railways operated by the two IM’s. These demonstration projects will ensure that the outputs from the project will be implemented in the practice of infrastructure management within and beyond the life of the project. To ensure this is achieved the Work Package is organised into the following tasks; (i) Case Study 1 – The Safety Framework will be tested on long distance corridor on the TEN-T Network. (ii) Case Study 2 – The Safety Framework will be tested on a complex partial section of the TEN-T Network. (iii) New techniques for object detection will be demonstrated in Norway, Ireland and Croatia and, (iv) Guideline documents will be provided on project outputs.

WP5 - Standardisation

The technologies developed in the S2R projects shall be standardised in an efficient and fast process by a harmonised process. This WP will
  • Assess the standardisation potential of Shift2Rail expected outcomes
  • Propose and implement innovative and optimised standardisation processes
  • Provide guidelines, template and support to TD leaders for standard drafting
  • Monitor progress in standardisation activities in liaison with standardisation bodies and professional organisations.

WP6 - Smart Maintenance

Approaches and concepts for smart and condition-based maintenance are harmonized between the five IPs to achieve a maximum efficiency. WP6 is divided into three topics each with specific objective:
  • Smart maintenance concept for the whole railway system
  • Condition based maintenance for passenger trains
  • Integrated infrastructure & rolling stock data management for smart maintenances

WP2 - Smart Maintenance for Rolling Stock

The aim of WP2 of the SMaRTE project is to investigate the use of a CBM approach to develop the most suitable solutions for predictive and corrective maintenance in railway vehicles. This will build in the experiences from other industry sectors particularly with reference to the knowledge generated in the aerospace field. Technically one of the key novelties of this project is the intelligent analysis of condition data to identify trends and predict future train behaviour and component degradation/failures.
The deliverables from this Work Package will provide a multi-objective optimisation of a rolling stock maintenance strategy to the railway industry by proposing the prototype components of CBM systems. This will contribute to prompt decision making allowing the rail industry to increase the reliability of the operational performance of the passenger trains, optimise maintenance activities and to reduce maintenance costs; which will ultimately improve railway services for users and operators.
Application of these tools will be demonstrated on a range of vehicle components to illustrate how they can be used to optimise individual rolling stock maintenance, improve maintenance practices and support, reduce unplanned maintenance through proactive decision support, reduce material and labour, increases vehicle availability and reduce costs.

WP4 - Impact Assessment

As outlined in the S2R Multi-Annual Action Plan (MAAP) a technology and impact assessment plan is vital to ensure that the activities carried out under S2R are delivering the expected benefits. This should include the specific methods and metrics by which the impacts are measured and achieved. In SMaRTE we will include methods to show that the specific proposals developed in the project have a clear business and financial case, with barriers to implementation identified and solutions proposed.
The objectives of this work package are to:
  • Develop metrics to demonstrate the impact of the solutions / approaches developed in the project in line with achieving the relevant KPIs of the S2R JU. With respect to the call document and the MAAP, the proposals outlined in this project will primarily contribute towards cost reduction (KPI1 in the call; MP4 and MP5 in the MAAP), and increased reliability and availability of rolling stock and increased quality / attractiveness of the rail system / mode shift (KPI3 in the call and MP1, MP3 and MP6 in the MAAP).
  • Establish the business case for the proposed innovations to demonstrate that the solutions generate an overall net benefit to society. The outputs will be expressed as a set of net present values.
  • Establish the financial case to demonstrate viability for the different parts of industry, taking account of the fact that costs may be imposed on one part of the system, whereas benefits may accrue elsewhere.
The impact assessment work package has been scaled according to the size of the overall budget. The analysis will be conducted for the case studies set out in work packages WP2 and WP3, with high level estimates made of extrapolations of benefits, assuming the solutions are rolled out more widely across Europe.
Note that the data to support the impact assessment comes from the main work packages, WP2 and WP3. Thus there are tasks within those work packages relating to impact. The current work package takes data from WP2 and WP3 and draws this together into an overall impact assessment in WP4.

WP4 - Virtual Certification: state of the art and evaluation of the benefits

Virtual Certification: state of the art and evaluation of the benefits will aim to give a synthetic overview of how a mixed virtual/experimental approach could be used within the authorization process for putting a train into service and how it can help the economic and industrial performance of the sector. The specific objectives of this WP are:
  • To give a wide state-of-the-art on available technical and scientific methods and industrial processes when using simulations to validate a new design of a component, a sub-system or a whole system like a train, and, on the other side, to conduct a gap analysis and a barriers identification for virtual certification in the different railway technical domains.
  • To quantify the potential benefits to the rail industry from the applications of virtual certification.

WP5 - Virtual Certification: proposal and engagement with relevant stakeholders

Virtual Certification: proposal and engagement with relevant stakeholders works towards giving recommendations on how to use simulations within the authorization process for putting a train into service and at helping to introduce in the standards and in the regulation framework of the railway rolling stock sector the possibility of using mixed virtual/experimental processes. The specific objectives of this WP are:
  • To coordinate the virtual certification activities led within IP1 and IP2;
  • To propose generic methods and to give recommendations for practical industrial processes for virtual certification, based on results from WP4, a coordinated work with IP1 and IP2, and also discussions with approval bodies and involved stakeholders of the sector;
  • To coordinate the dissemination activities towards the standardization authorities.

WP01 - Car body - Detail design

The main objective of WP1 is to develop the detail designs of some key elements such as HS carbody, headstock carbody section or short couple element defined in PIVOT.
  • TALGO, ANN, FIDAMC and TECNALIA will focus on the design of a complete HS carbody;
  • BT will concentrate on the headstock carbody section;
  • CAF will work on the design of a structural cabin for a metro;
  • SMO will work on the design of short couple element;
  • TRV will work on the multi-functional optimization tools required to make novel topologies that will fulfil weight reductions while meeting functional constraints on acoustics and vibrations.

These designs will be carried out assuring the fulfilment of the structural and non-structural requirements identified in the technical specifications and according to the assessment methodology. The design will be completed with a weight analysis that will be used to calculate the weight reduction, base of the KPI definition.

WP04 - Carbody – KPI and Homologation activities

WP4 looks to take special attention on KPI defined at the beginning of the Project, therefore the performances in terms of weight and manufacturability will be check in detail. In addition, homologation procedures and long-term activities along the project will be part of this WP.

WP05 - Smart running gear development

This WP will start from the concepts developed within PIVOT project and will be developed further achieving a level of maturity that will allow the development of different technical demonstrators in the WP6 (TRL 6-7).

WP06 - Evaluation of smart running gear demonstrators

In this WP several demonstrators are foreseen to be developed, produced, tested and evaluated for the main development streams: Sensor and health monitoring functionality; Active Suspension and control technology.

WP07 - Development of Running Gear Components

The main objectives of this WP are: Weight reduction which will facilitate a reduction in the engineering and integration effort and generate energy savings through the whole life cycle; Lower unsprung mass to help reduce track damage, wear and vibrations to contribute to a reduction in system cost; Recommendations for validation methods for reduced noise and vibration running gear; More efficient authorisation with a reduction in cost, time and effort.

WP08 - Evaluation of Running Gear Components

In this WP several demonstrators are foreseen to be developed, produced, tested and evaluated for the main development streams: Noise and Vibration reduction; Optimised Materials; Virtual certification.

WP09 - Brake System Design Phase

The aim of this WP is to provide an innovative point of view in new brakes technology. The strict collaboration in this WP will lead to a new generation of brakes system able to bridge the gap between environmental aims and market needs.

WP10 - Brake System Implementation Phase

WP11 - Brake System Test Phase

The aim of this WP is to provide an innovative point of view in new brakes technology. The strict collaboration in this WP will lead to a new generation of brakes system able to bridge the gap between environmental aims and market needs.

WP18 - Eco-friendly HVAC with natural refrigerants

  • Push the development of eco-friendly HVAC systems with natural refrigerants to overcome the limitation of artificial refrigerants within the European Union
  • Gain a margin for European HVAC-suppliers in relation to developments outside of Europe
  • Reduce energy consumption of vehicles

WP01 - Universal Cost Model 2.0

Technical innovations in running gear design, like new materials to reduce weight or active suspension to reduce track deterioration, do not easily find their way into the market nowadays

WA 4 - Smart Mobility (4.1 Smart Planning, 4.2 I2M)

Implementation within CCA projects


WP2 - Development of a basic smart planning model

The objectives of this work package are:
  • To provide an overview of recent topics on planning activities, state-of-practice usage of simulation in planning processes and state-of-the-art smart planning research
  • To provide an overview of relevant use cases and available/usable data sets
  • To define the necessary scope of innovation for a comprehensive smart planning tool

WP3 - Enhancement of the basic model to disruptions and elaboration of case studies

The objectives of this work package are to analyse and assess the impact of disruptions and time buffers in planning processes. The specific objectives are:
  • Conduct comprehensive analyses of different disruption types
  • Evaluate efficiency of existing time buffers
  • Model the impact of disruptions 
  • Enhance (expand) the developed prototype by including disruptions
  • Use the prototype on examples with a European focus

WP2 - Mobility

  • To use Open Track tool for micro-simulations, to deal with dispatching rules, connections between trains and circulation of train sets. The application programming interface (API) offers one the opportunity to influence the simulation run at any second of its calculation. Using this unique feature it is possible to reschedule trains by giving speed aspects to be respected
  • To provide the support to Infrastructure Managers in order to achieve maximum amount of time slots for railway undertakings and for punctual operation.
  • To simulate the behaviour of the reality to prove that the optimization algorithm provides suitable solutions within a short period of time.
  • To bring together information technologies from multiple domains to create a system to manage, analyse and interpret large data generated from infrastructure maintenance schemes

WP7 - Integrated Mobility

I2M will provide a step change towards seamless fully-automated process integration of railway related services and other modes of transport. A first phase focusses on enhancing the system designed under X2RAIL-2 WP6 (Traffic Management System) with all necessary constituents needed to link Freight Operations to the overall process. In particular the works executed under this work program shall deliver:
  • Increase of transport capacity, reliability and reduced cost of Rail Freight Operations through application of advanced Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environment developed in X2RAIL-2 WP6 to integrate Freight Operations
  • Growth of the Rail Freight Transportation segment using seamless information exchange routines between internal and external clients and services thus increasing Rail Freight Transportation Capacity
  • Decreased cost of Rail Freight Management processes applying advanced , high efficient and automated Business Logic and decision support tools
  • Increased overall line capacity and punctuality of Freight trains based on the introduction of high precision improved estimated time of arrival calculation logic and slot planning/management tools

WP2 - Smart Planning: Feasibility Studies

Smart Planning: Feasibility Studies pursues the goal of gathering information on and assessing the feasibility of applying and extending the simulation approach developed in PLASA to a number of relevant use cases. It is split up into 3 sub areas, in which the objectives are:
  • Dealing with incomplete data
  • Interplay between microscopic and macroscopic simulation
  • Operational planning (intraday)

WP3 - Smart Planning: Simulation tool development and case studies

Smart Planning: Simulation tool development and case studies looks to further develop some aspects of the PLASA simulation tool, and to implement case studies based on the results of WP2.

WA 5 - Energy and Sustainability (5.1 Energy, 5.2 Noise and Vibration)

Implementation within CCA projects


WP02 - Interface with other Shift2Rail Groups and External Energy Groups

The objective of this work package is to establish energy norms with respect to existing state of the art and future developments, energy strategic views and needs of S2R internal and external stakeholders. The energy requirements for passenger trains resulting from existing normative specifications, guidelines and other stakeholders will be analysed. This includes the results of Roll2Rail and will be carried out in order to derive a strategy and future rules for the specification of energy efficiency. Recommendations on urban train norms and regulations will also be developed.
Pre-normative work will provide energy related marketing studies and eco labelling proposals. Energy efficient technologies and strategies from a whole life cycle approach will be analysed.
The goal of this work package is to achieve:
  • A strategic view integrating European transport and environment policies and recommendations;
  • An interface on norms & regulation inputs to CEN and CENELEC for energy matters;
  • A marketing understanding on energy related questions: existing and future "business rules" to allow emergence of new low consumption solutions between energy stakeholders (industry, operators, IM, energy providers, etc.);
  • A common approach on eco labelling, including inputs from European R&D projects and to support modal shift by linking eco labelling to multi-modal habit changes for global energy/CO2 savings for Europe.

WP03 - Energy Calculation Methodology

6The objective of this work package is to develop the methodology for assessing the overall energy reduction of the S2R innovations carried out within the S2R TDs. The work package will be an input to work package 4 where the assessment is carried out.
Further objectives are:
  • To support the S2R TD leaders in all IPs in the definition of sub-level key performance indicators (KPI) of their TD with respect to energy savings;
  • To supply the TD leaders with methodologies to assess the energy savings.

WP04 - Assessment of energy improvement

The work package 4 will be able to deliver quantified energy performances of addressed TDs. The existing tools of the S2R FINE 1 participants and those developed in collaboration via S2R open calls (notably the OPEUS project) will be used to quantify improvements on energy consumption.
Further objectives are:
  • Integration of results provided by the S2R TDs via work package 3;
  • Translation of sublevel KPIs into the S2R energy KPI;
  • Evaluation and update of the S2R energy KPI;
  • Delivery of the final energy related results achieved by S2R for the four SPDs.

WP05 - Technical Assessment and integration on system level of Noise & Vibration (N&V)

The purpose of this work package is to identify all N&V relevant components included in the S2R TDs and to set and follow up N&V targets for each S2R TD Leader in order to achieve an optimal result on overall system level.

WP06 - Traffic noise scenarios and baseline for evaluation and monitoring noise effects of S2R innovations

The objective of this work package is to define noise baseline and built traffic-scenarios t for pass-by as well of parking and stand still mode of trains to serve as reference for the evaluation and monitoring of noise effects at the end of the activities of the S2R CCA Work Area 5 planned in the S2R MAAP.
The objectives of this work package are:
  • The definition of different traffic scenarios (traffic mix, day/night split etc.) for the pass-by noise evaluation for each traffic segment (high speed, long-distance trains, regional and freight) for specified train-track configurations: These scenarios will be used as input parameters for N&V calculation as well to monitor and evaluate the mitigation effects compared to the state of the art on realistic conditions including their cost benefit ratios with the final phase of S2R.
  • With respect to noise monitoring, typical situations of the TEN (Trans-European Transport Network) Rail Freight Corridor “A (Rotterdam-Genoa)” are suggested, to serve exemplarily as demonstrator for evaluating the different noise mitigation effects of the different technologies and their combination for a freight case. Further, a long term vision on the traffic increase and their impacts to different scenarios change will be given.
  • In addition to the scenarios with moving trains, definition of typical scenarios for parked-train and stand-still modes have to be developed.
  • A close cooperation with DESTINATE must be built up for collaboration on the needed input parameters for the cost benefit ratio methodology and calculations to deduce the most effective measure mixture.

WP07 - Interior Noise modelling

The objective of this work package is to develop methodologies for efficient and accurate predictions of interior noise, including a modular framework to handle sources, transmission paths and results from existing simulation tools. Also, the work package should assess state of the art methodologies and define validation schemes for new methodologies, in part developed by DESTINATE.

WP08 - Sources and assemblies

The objective of this work package is to develop characterisation and specification methodologies for vibro-acoustic sources and train assemblies. Using these methodologies will help to improve the accuracy of prediction models developed in S2R and to standardize and to provide standardized models to favour its deployment. To obtain these methodologies it will be needed:
  • To assess, improve and develop methodologies needed for the characterisation and specification of vibro-acoustic sources and train assemblies
  • To validate the characterisation methodologies with measurements of sources and train assemblies
  • To standardize the characterisation and specifications.

WP09 - New methodologies and technologies

The objective of the work package is to support the development of new tools for auralisation and visualisation for an efficient demonstration and selection of the best means and appropriate usage of noise control improvements. The state of the art in visualisation and auralisation techniques and applications shall be compiled. A specification of the dedicated technology require

WP01 - Urban rail systems energy requirements

To define urban rail systems energy requirements in Europe.

WP02 - Simulation model and tool development

Developing a simulation model for the assessment of energy consumption and energy losses of different types of electrical rail vehicles using typical standardised duty cycles.
Pure diesel and hybrid diesel rail vehicle architectures were already modelled in CleanER-D using the SP7 Tool. This WP will build on these to expand the modelling capability of the tool to electric traction.
The calculations are based on physically-oriented models describing the longitudinal dynamics of the different kinds of electrical rail vehicles (i.e. EMUs and locomotives) with their operation-specific constrains:
  • Theoretical modelling of the longitudinal dynamics of electrically-driven rail vehicles;
  • Definition of component characteristics and system parameters;
  • Capability to perform dynamic simulations using typical duty cycles to determine energy consumption, energy losses and system efficiencies;

WP03 - Reference scenarios simulation

  • To set up and describe four reference scenarios corresponding to urban, regional, high speed and freight operations;
  • To perform simulations on those scenarios assessing the energy consumption profile of different innovations including those from the S2R lighthouse projects

WP04 - DAS study

  • To identify, assess and compare the different driver assistance systems (DAS) available and their relevance to the four reference scenarios defined;
  • To develop efficient and feasible driving strategies and energy management approaches for railway vehicles

WP05 - In-vehicle energy losses study

This WP aims at investigating the energy losses within the traction chain, using the duty cycles defined in previous projects (specifically CleanER-D) and the urban duty cycles defined in WP1. Influence on energy consumption due to traction auxiliaries particularly cooling needs, will be evaluated on the different operational states (acceleration, steady state, braking and parking). The calculations will be based on the OPEUS physical model describing the longitudinal dynamics of the different types of rail vehicles and their architectures. Two main objectives are envisaged:
  • To investigate energy losses within the vehicle traction chain;
  • To carry out a sensitivity analysis investigating the importance and impact of different vehicle parameters and recommending suitable measures for losses reduction.

WP06 - Advanced ESSs study

To assess the role and potential in optimising energy usage of innovative technologies such as advanced ESSs.

WP07 - Global vision of energy in railways

To describe and critique current energy usage in railways providing a comprehensive outlook of its prospects including the potential pivotal role of introducing smart management to rail networks.

WP2 - Requirement analysis and assessment

This work package will establish the foundation for the development work in WP3. A critical review of current methodologies, techniques, models and technologies relevant for the development work is carried out. Requirements to ensure an efficient development are compiled. A cooperation with the complementary project S2R-CFM-CCA-02-2015 is planned to exchange information and ensure efficient requirement setting.

WP3 - Development of methodologies, tools and technologies for noise prediction and mitigation

WP3 is led by MBBM-RAIL, linked third party of the beneficiary MBBM. Within this wok package, the cost-benefit models, the interior noise simulation model, the techniques to measure and quantify the noise sources and the auralization techniques will be developed. This work package will expand the state-of-the-art concerning interior noise modeling and auralization. It is planned to cooperate with the complementary project S2R-CFM-CCA-02-2015. The work package benefits from the state-of-the-art review under WP2 and is supported by the validation of the methods in WP4. It is thus, the core work package of the project. A close relation to the other work packages is ensured by a participation of all partners in WP2, WP3 and WP4 and focusing of each partner to certain tasks.
The objectives of WP3 are:
  • The evaluation and the monitoring of impact on traffic noise scenarios including the development of improved models for calculation of cost-effectiveness of railway N&V mitigation measures and the evaluation of impact of N&V mitigation measures for defined traffic noise scenario.
  • The development of a novel and innovative interior railway noise simulation model based on the operational transfer path analysis (OTPA).
  • The specification of methodologies for source and sub-assembly characterization.
  • The development of new technologies for auralization and visualization of noise scenarios in an

WP4 - Validation and integration of proposed solutions

The aim of this work package is to validate the developed methodology for assessing the cost-effectiveness of mitigation technologies and measures.
The validation will include the source characterization validation as well as the interior noise model validation.
STAV, as the industrial partner and leader of the WP will provide the reference vehicle where the validation will be carried out and will assure the feasibility of the methodology application on an industrial environment.
Finally, an overall system approach guidelines for cost-effective noise and vibration management will be done.
It is planned to cooperate with the complementary project S2R-CFM-CCA-02-2015.

WP01 - Car body - Detail design

The main objective of WP1 is to develop the detail designs of some key elements such as HS carbody, headstock carbody section or short couple element defined in PIVOT.
  • TALGO, ANN, FIDAMC and TECNALIA will focus on the design of a complete HS carbody;
  • BT will concentrate on the headstock carbody section;
  • CAF will work on the design of a structural cabin for a metro;
  • SMO will work on the design of short couple element;
  • TRV will work on the multi-functional optimization tools required to make novel topologies that will fulfil weight reductions while meeting functional constraints on acoustics and vibrations.

These designs will be carried out assuring the fulfilment of the structural and non-structural requirements identified in the technical specifications and according to the assessment methodology. The design will be completed with a weight analysis that will be used to calculate the weight reduction, base of the KPI definition.

WP02 - Carbody- Manufacturing of elementary parts

The main aim of WP2 is to finish the manufacturing engineering and develop the tooling needed for the manufacturing of demonstrator. In this phase manufacturing of each subassembly of the different demonstrators will be carried out. As part of the work also the optimization tools developed in WP1 will be employed to perform numerical designs and experimentations on multi-functional car body subcomponents.

This activity is also closely related with the Workstream 1, 3 and 4 of OC (WS 1: New tooling for composite car body manufacturing, WS 3 Process automation concepts for Composite Carbody Manufacturing it is important to take into account the dimension of the component to dimension tooling and process and WS 4 Process integrating joint concepts and modular concepts for Composite Car body Manufacturing).

WP07 - Development of Running Gear Components

The main objectives of this WP are: Weight reduction which will facilitate a reduction in the engineering and integration effort and generate energy savings through the whole life cycle; Lower unsprung mass to help reduce track damage, wear and vibrations to contribute to a reduction in system cost; Recommendations for validation methods for reduced noise and vibration running gear; More efficient authorisation with a reduction in cost, time and effort.

WP07 - Development of Running Gear Components

The main objectives of this WP are: Weight reduction which will facilitate a reduction in the engineering and integration effort and generate energy savings through the whole life cycle; Lower unsprung mass to help reduce track damage, wear and vibrations to contribute to a reduction in system cost; Recommendations for validation methods for reduced noise and vibration running gear; More efficient authorisation with a reduction in cost, time and effort.

WP08 - Evaluation of Running Gear Components

In this WP several demonstrators are foreseen to be developed, produced, tested and evaluated for the main development streams: Noise and Vibration reduction; Optimised Materials; Virtual certification.

WP09 - Brake System Design Phase

The aim of this WP is to provide an innovative point of view in new brakes technology. The strict collaboration in this WP will lead to a new generation of brakes system able to bridge the gap between environmental aims and market needs.

WP10 - Brake System Implementation Phase

WP11 - Brake System Test Phase

The aim of this WP is to provide an innovative point of view in new brakes technology. The strict collaboration in this WP will lead to a new generation of brakes system able to bridge the gap between environmental aims and market needs.

WP12 - Entrance Systems Design and Tests

This work package is mainly focused on the design phase. In addition, a collaboration with Connecta-2 project on door application profile and functional distribution framework will lead to a review of documentation.

WP12 - Entrance Systems Design and Tests

This work package is mainly focused on the design phase. In addition, a collaboration with Connecta-2 project on door application profile and functional distribution framework will lead to a review of documentation.

WP13 - Entrance Systems Manufacturing and tests

This work package is mainly focused on the manufacturing phase.

WP15 - Modular Interiors Feasibility

The Modular Interiors WP15 is split into three main parts: one for the common view, another one for interiors design and the last one for driver’s cabin.
The first 15 months are focused on pre-studies. The WP members will use the state-of-art and knowledges from PIVOT and M4R to develop a pre-project. The group will propose concepts in accordance to the objectives.
The WP is organised in two groups: one focused on interiors and the other one focused on driver cabin. The group “driver cabin” will follow the road map from PIVOT WP7 and realize the pre-feasibility studies for new concepts. The group “interiors” will define the concepts to develop and realize the pre-studies of these concepts.
The WP is organised around 4 items:
  • To define the common view to build the concepts with the deliverables from PIVOT WP7 and M4R WP6, 7 and 8
  • To make choices of the concepts to develop for interiors design and driver cabin
  • To start the studies of final concepts
  • To propose proofs of concepts for Innotrans 2020 The main objectives of the WP15 TD1.7 are:
  • Valid the concepts to reduce the cost of an interiors redesign
  • Valid the concepts to increase the possibilities to evolve fully or partially train interiors/driver cabin during the operating life

WP16 - Modular Interiors Development

The main target of WP16 is to validate by studies the main lines of the pre-project and search to respond to the needs and provide targeted solutions.
WP16 is organised around 2 main guidelines:
  • To study the final concepts
  • To prepare the prototyping of concepts for Innotrans 2022 The main objectives are:
  • Valid the KPI, reduce cost and time, to design and redesign the interiors of train during the operating life
  • Valid new proposals to evolve the experiences on board, fully or partially, for train interiors/driver cabin during the operating life
  • Build an eco-design comparison with the existing reference with modularity as a key performance

WP18 - Eco-friendly HVAC with natural refrigerants

  • Push the development of eco-friendly HVAC systems with natural refrigerants to overcome the limitation of artificial refrigerants within the European Union
  • Gain a margin for European HVAC-suppliers in relation to developments outside of Europe
  • Reduce energy consumption of vehicles

WP02 - Strategic view on energy efficiency

The objective of this WP is to review and adopt the methodology for assessing the improved energy efficiency by S2R innovations carried out within the S2R TDs. The WP2 outputs will feed WP3 where the assessment is carried out. Amendments of the methodology are required for new and adopted TDs. Another objective is the suggestion of European standards for energy assessment considering new technologies.

WP03 - Assessing energy improvement theoretically

The objective of this WP is assess the overall energy reduction on the S2R TDs. This WP is able to deliver theoretical quantified energy performances of addressed TDs. The existing tools of the S2R FINE-2 participants (see example list in ROLL2RAIL Deliverable 8.2) and those developed in collaboration via S2R open calls (notably the S2R open call “S2R-OC-CCA-02-2015 Energy usage, generation and saving approaches” – OPEUS) are used to quantify improvements on energy consumption. This WP includes: Collection of sub-level KPIs, translation of sub-level KPIs into the S2R energy KPI and evaluation and update of the S2R energy KPI.

WP04 - Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and optimization potentials

In regional and suburban applications, the energy demand of rail vehicles is strongly depending on comfort energy demand, i.e. thermal energy demand for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). Under very cold or very hot conditions the HVAC energy demand of light rail, suburban, and regional vehicles may even exceed the energy demand for traction. This is critical especially in the field of battery-powered vehicles, as with increasing energy demand for HVAC the range is strongly reduced. Thus, the focus of this WP is on evaluation and benchmarking of smart control and waste heat usage approaches to reduce worst case energy consumption of HVAC systems in battery electric multiple units (BEMU).
Based on operators’ feedbacks it is known that some energy saving measures are installed in a way, that they impair the thermal comfort or a proper regulation of thermal parameters. In future analysis outside of FINE-2 it will therefore be necessary, to develop tools and methodologies that allow the assessment and optimisation of all influences on the passenger’s comfort, the energy efficiency and the reliability in parallel. FINE-2 thus identifies promising energy saving measures for this analysis.
The main objectives are:
•    To define the state-of-the-art of the HVAC technology, and to define additional sub-level KPIs as well as energy savings evaluation methods;
•    To analyse the HVAC related energy saving potentials along a train journey derived from smart control and utilisation of waste heat / Electro-Dynamic (ED) braking energy in BEMU;
•    To identify promising energy saving measures for future analysis concerning their impact on thermal comfort and/or the reliability of the HVAC units in operation.

WP05 - Assessing energy improvement by measurement in specific demonstrators

The objective of this WP is the evaluation of energy savings achieved on an urban scenario by real measurements and their assessment comparison against theoretically estimated values.  Technologies such as the Hybrid SiC traction converter, developed as part of the PINTA 1 S2R project, and the DAS developed among other CAF project’s not included in Shift2Rail program will be analysed. The OPEUS Tool developed in the OPEUS project will be used as much as possible in the definition of the reference scenarios (speed profiles and energy consumption). This methodology will be also used to evaluate SiC Hybrid energy savings in future S2R 2020 Call For Members IP1 project. Additionally, in order to optimise the DAS calculations for urban scenarios, a methodology to define the running resistance of the vehicles while running through tunnels of different characteristics will be defined. Finally, an evaluation of the present auxiliary management strategy will be carried out in order to identify possible improvement areas.

WP06 - Exterior noise tools validation

The objectives of this work package are:
•    To validate methodologies and tools used to simulate the exterior noise radiated by equipment (wheel/rail contact not included) in terms of source strength, source directivity and integration effects due to installation in the train; 
•    To propose a process to for acceptance of industrial simulation tools to be used for exterior noise simulations;
•    To obtain a methodology to assess the uncertainty of exterior noise simulations (pass-by including rolling noise and standstill cases).

WP07 - Noise sources separation

The objectives of this work package are:
•    To support the development of innovative techniques to separate and define the sound power level and directivity of the different types of acoustic sources during pass-by at constant speed of a train;
•    To support both the simplification and the enhancement of methodologies for separation of the track versus the vehicle part of the rolling noise. Validation and data collection including several test scenarios is expected.

WP08 - Ground Vibration

A commonly accepted, practical and validated prediction tool for ground-vibration impact studies will be developed. Based on a combination of measurements and simulations, the frequency-based simulation tool will also allow the inclusion of a database of typical emission and transmission spectra for different train, track and ground parameters, and building types. Therefore the model can be used for both rough estimations and detailed analysis of the train-induced vibrations inside a building.
For the development of the prediction tool, the FINE-2 project will work in a close cooperation with another S2R project anticipated to start in 2020. In the FINE-2 project, model requirements will be specified, calculation models will be proposed, measurements will be performed, and the model will be validated. The S2R project anticipated to start in 2020will do the development of further models, the programming and the testing of the tool. The prediction tool will be used by vibration experts for the planning of the construction or the upgrading of railway lines. The project is mainly focused on a surface-track model but there should be the option to include also tunnels.

WP09 - New Technologies

WP 9 covers two different workstreams on supporting new and innovative approaches to improve:
a)    The acoustic design for the interior of future rolling stock by using innovative design methods and new materials and;
b)    Computational auralisation and visualisation (A&V) tools for railway noise demonstrations of existing and new design features integrated in a real environment.
The objectives shall be reached both in close cooperation with two complementary S2R OCs projects, one including New Materials (S2R-OC-CAA-01-2019) and the other A&V (S2R 2020 Call).
Within Task 9.1 the WP will fulfill more stringent targets on noise reduction combined with a major mass reduction in vehicle designs the objectives of this task are to support and develop together with the corresponding S2R OC project new noise control design principles using inherent new material properties for robust, quiet and comfortable railway vehicles. This solution shall match and exceed the development of passenger comfort and acoustic performance in other modes of transport such as cars, busses and aircraft also in the future.
Within Task 9.2 these A&V tools shall enable a clear communication for vehicle manufacturers, operators, passengers and, in particular, the affected public and political bodies. The A&V software tools provide inter alia a solid base for a demonstration and comprehensible communication about concrete noise mitigation measures in large-scale projects or design features for railway systems between operators and concerned residents and enables manufacturer and operator to select between components for different interior or exterior noise performance.

WP10 - Technical assessment and monitoring

The purpose of this WP is to observe the development progress of S2R TDs relating to N&V, to communicate on reaching noise targets in accordance with vehicle scenarios defined in S2R FINE 1 Deliverable 5.3 and to assess the overall work done on noise in the S2R IPs on vehicle level.
Another objective of this WP is to demonstrate the noise impact on people adjacent to railways on the basis of traffic scenarios defined in S2R FINE 1 D6.1. As a result, a statement shall be made to what extent a large-scale application of the technologies developed in Shift2Rail could lead to a reduction of rail traffic noise emissions in Europe.

WP1 - Exterior noise simulation tools

To propose and validate methods for source characterization based on equivalent point sources (monopoles) including models for transmission paths. 

WP2 - Pass-by noise source separation

The objective of this work stream is to develop novel and innovative techniques to get the sound power level and directivity of the different types of noise sources during pass by at constant speed of a train.

WP3 - Separation of track noise and vehicle noise

To develop and validate methods for separating the contributions of vehicle and track to rolling noise during train pass-by.

WP4 - Innovative materials for improved sound confort

In WP4 innovative approaches and materials designs for an improved interior sound comfort will be explored. 


WP03 - Wheelset of the future

The main objective of this workstream is a feasibility study on the use of composite materials for the construction of railway wheelsets

WP05 - Project Management and Technical Coordination

The objectives of this work package are: Project Management: - To ensure effective coordination of the project - To ensure efficient management of common consortium activities - To ensure effective overall administrative and financial management of the project
- To ensure the running of a quality assurance process - To manage the risks and propose mitigation strategies and contingency measures if needed. - To establish a good communication channel and ensure coordination with the S2R JU
Technical Coordination: - To coordinate the technical work of the various WPs in order to keep the alignment with the overall objectives of the project and with the Shift2Rail activities - To solve any technical issues that might appear during the project To contribute to any relevant decision at WP level on issues that may affect the achievement of the overall objectives of the project and impact Shift2Rail

WA 6 - Human Capital

Implementation within CCA projects


WP8 - Human Capital

The railway staff using the S2R technologies need to be prepared and trained as well as the organisations need to be adopted for the faster evolution of technology in the future. The activities are expected to contribute to overcome the challenges imposed by demographic change and to balance the benefits and risks for the human capital in the system imposed by comprehensive and radical technological innovations. The following topics will be addressed:
  • Change in job profiles
  • Skills and qualifications
  • Establish a mapping of current skills and identify the prospects for quantitative and qualitative developments at 5 and 10 years
  • Creating agile organizations

WP3 - HUMAN FACTORS: USER CENTRED PLANNING AND MOBILITY

  • Reviewing demographical and societal factors affecting transport use, usability and attitudes towards transport.
  • Implementing the Experience Map. It will simulate possible train trip experiences considering passengers as individuals behaving in the real context while performing the activities to reach their prefixed objectives.
  • Identifying physical and planning factors - and their relative importance - in the journey to identify the resistance at each step of the journey, broken down by demographic groups and mode/journey purpose.
  • Identifying attrition factors for each activity in the journey, by mode/journey purpose and demographic groups, to quantify potential customers lost at each step of the journey due to unfulfilled usability requirements.
  • Defining behavioural use cases to be evaluated and deepened through passengers’ experience mapping (Task 3.2) and a follow-up survey (Task 3.3).
Drafting the “Smart Journey Vision” and a roadmap (called ‘railmap’) of measures to simplify the end-user experience of planning and undertaking a trip that includes a rail journey.

WP4 - Impact Assessment

As outlined in the S2R Multi-Annual Action Plan (MAAP) a technology and impact assessment plan is vital to ensure that the activities carried out under S2R are delivering the expected benefits. This should include the specific methods and metrics by which the impacts are measured and achieved. In SMaRTE we will include methods to show that the specific proposals developed in the project have a clear business and financial case, with barriers to implementation identified and solutions proposed.
The objectives of this work package are to:
  • Develop metrics to demonstrate the impact of the solutions / approaches developed in the project in line with achieving the relevant KPIs of the S2R JU. With respect to the call document and the MAAP, the proposals outlined in this project will primarily contribute towards cost reduction (KPI1 in the call; MP4 and MP5 in the MAAP), and increased reliability and availability of rolling stock and increased quality / attractiveness of the rail system / mode shift (KPI3 in the call and MP1, MP3 and MP6 in the MAAP).
  • Establish the business case for the proposed innovations to demonstrate that the solutions generate an overall net benefit to society. The outputs will be expressed as a set of net present values.
  • Establish the financial case to demonstrate viability for the different parts of industry, taking account of the fact that costs may be imposed on one part of the system, whereas benefits may accrue elsewhere.
The impact assessment work package has been scaled according to the size of the overall budget. The analysis will be conducted for the case studies set out in work packages WP2 and WP3, with high level estimates made of extrapolations of benefits, assuming the solutions are rolled out more widely across Europe.
Note that the data to support the impact assessment comes from the main work packages, WP2 and WP3. Thus there are tasks within those work packages relating to impact. The current work package takes data from WP2 and WP3 and draws this together into an overall impact assessment in WP4.