Shift2Rail logo A body of the European Union


Total Project Value:
€ 3 227 375,61
from 01/12/2020 to 31/05/2023
S2R (Of H2020) co-funding:
€ 1 401 128,75
Pierre-etienne Gautier


European Railway operators are under pressure to decrease their life cycle cost, to increase significantly their reliability and punctuality, to be more adaptive to different services. The European railway system remaining very fragmented in terms of technologies: the adoption of new technologies and the renewal of former technologies are not quick enough for the railway mode to answer correctly to the public policy needs. Research and innovation have a major part to play in responding to these needs by giving the right attention to data and data models and further to the definition of a global railway system architecture as it is developing in other transport modes and industries to support the necessary evolutions. A number of potential technology solutions emerged that could contribute to this radical improvement in terms of cost, capacity, reliability, efficiency, carbon emissions for a better service to rail customers. It is more and more largely accepted that the following innovations will lead to correct answers to the current concerns: 
  • Adoption of Functional Railway System Architecture to facilitate inter-connection of sub-systems and products from different manufacturers, to ease the evolution by a far quicker adoption of new technologies, to simplify the evolution, to improve the exchange of data in the overall system; 
  • Implementation of a “lean” railway system by harmonizing the equipment and sub-system variations; 
  • Fostering the implementation of well-defined applications by reducing functional overlapping; 
  • Promotion of technical interoperability; 
  • Achieving flexible architectures which are easy to adapt and able to comply with the requirements from all the stakeholders (infrastructure managers, railway undertakings, suppliers, etc.). 

Concerning the adoption of functional railway system architecture, the challenge is very important due to the high rate of fragmentation of the railway system, especially in terms of regulations, operator’s specifications, the various generations of technical solutions, and the legacy systems in the long railway history. The increasing number of existing data models and architectures could generate confusion if not properly managed. Railway operators, infrastructure managers, railway manufacturing industry, national policy makers have developed their own models, for different subsystems. The first analysis and the comparison between all models lead to the following hypothesis:

The LinX4Rail project which started on December 1st, 2019 sets the grounds for a shared vision of the railway system architecture, as well as the development of the CDM (Conceptual Data Model) which will enable different simulation or operational subsystems to run together, which paves the way to building a shared and interoperable architecture. 

The main first outputs coming from the on-going LinX4Rail project are: 
  • A S2R-CDM conceptual model, based on unified hierarchical and modular structure representing the subsystems or assemblies of the railway system, identifying the relations between them and providing a common language and data dictionary (object model library) to describe them; 
  • An agreed Governance Model of the S2R-CDM, which guarantees a unified development of the model and along with its sustainability; 
  • A first comprehensive architecture, mapping the technologies and strategy for the implementation of a new integrated railway system approach. 
  • The achievement of at least three demonstrators 
  • A common functional railway architecture vision, including exploration of new business model for the sustainability and strategy for deployment. 
  • Recommendations to the standardization bodies and the certification levels. 

LinX4Rail-2 will continue and intensify the work started in LinX4Rail by bringing in further data models and architecture sources, therefore a close exchange of information and results and outcomes between the projects is expected. Only by combining the work and resources of the two projects, the expected results can be achieved which answer to the needs of the sector.

The objectives of the project LinX4Rail-2 are: 
  • To manage the follow-up of the existing work on System Architecture and Conceptual Data Model (CDM) carried out in the on-going LinX4Rail project, aiming at a large adoption for the European railways sector 
  • To ensure wider uptake of results from LinX4Rail by proving the performance of the proposal methodology and vision and by evaluating the impacts, taking into account the business case 
  • To establish a single ‘repository’ for System Architecture and CDM with a well-developed sustainability plan. 
  • To adopt a common vision for the functional railway vision able to transform the Europe railway system 

Project Structure

LinX4Rail-2 project is structured in three work packages. The proposed structure is based on the following main concepts:

• To integrate the results from of LinX4Rail and inputs from other projects,
• To respect the change management process,
• To interact with other IPs and other ongoing projects,
• To disseminate and to capitalise the results.

The work carried out in WP1 and WP2 is consistent with the results carried out in LinX4Rail and with the aim of ensuring that the tools are widely used by all railways actors.

The WP1 will focus on system architecture. Its activities will continue and extend the work on a first comprehensive architecture, mapping the technologies for the implementation of a new integrated railway system approach, based on the initial activities in the LinX4Rail project. Furthermore, the WP1 will consider latest developments related to the TAURO projects for e.g. decision making, supervision, remote control and automation all based on sensors and artificial intelligence.

WP2 will stimulate the CDM evolvement by supporting the S2R JU IP4 ecosystem by adding a data model branch into the CDM consisting of data need in specified use cases for integration of IP4 defined systems such as Mobility as a Service (MaaS) systems to the Traffic Management Systems (TMS).

WP1 - System Architecture

This WP will continue and extend the work on a first comprehensive architecture, mapping the technologies for the implementation of a new integrated railway system approach, based on the initial activities in the LinX4Rail project. Furthermore, this WP will consider latest developments related to the TAURO projects for e.g. decision making, supervision, remote control and automation all based on sensors and artificial intelligence.

In general, the objectives are:

  • Assess efficiently the business impact of intended subjects,
  • Continue and extend the work on a first comprehensive architecture,
  • Update the common Functional Railway System Architecture,
  • Map the technologies for the implementation of a new integrated railway system approach, based on the initial activities in the LinX4Rail project,
  • Analyse and review the TAURO architecture contributions and associated selected formal models,
  • Plan activities for the governance of the CDM/Functional Railway System architecture,
  • Agree on the MBSE use and apply it to the system architecture defined in LinX4Rail,
  • Agree on the most important representations of architecture models supporting the common comprehensive architecture (i.e. deployment architecture, logical architecture, physical architecture model) and the integration model.

In particular, this WP will update the common Functional Railway System Architecture and will integrate it into Shift2Rail carrying out the change management process, which is described in the “ED PB change management” document. The process is following the description and figure in the section 1.3.2 Methodology. The change management process steps are defined as:
  1. Selection of subjects and system impact
  2. Functional requirements specification implementation requests
  3. Technical assessment
  4. Project impacts
  5. Recommendation on change implementation
  6. Integration
  7. Feedback on integration

This structure aims at streamlining the inputs (“subjects”) from running projects and other initiatives outside Shift2Rail and analysing them. The Programme Board will approve or not the proposed subjects. LinX4Rail will provide specification requests, the projects will execute the technical impact assessment. LinX4Rail will present the technical impact assessment to the Programme Board. Based on the recommendations, the decision of an integration into the project is taken at the Programme Board level.

The WP1 is split into 5 tasks which are linked to each other:
  • T1.1 Common business objectives
  • T1.2 Functional Railway System Architecture
  • T1.3 Additional specification recommendations to Shift2Rail
  • T1.4 Strategy for implementation and proposing migration actions
  • T1.5 Technical coordination of the WP

WP2 - Conceptual Data Model

  • Identification and definition of the common concepts related to the interface IP4 – IP2
  • Evolution and enrichment of CDM, designed in LinX4Rail according to identified use cases in the S2R-CFM-IP4-01-2020 project EXTENSIVE
  • Analyse and propose updates to the dictionary defined in the LinX4Rail WP2
  • Exploration of future evolution of CDM by means of integrating the S2R JU IP4 ecosystem
  • Support partners with technical implementation of CDM compliant interfaces for various use cases
  • Promotion of CDM by insuring the interoperability and interface with other initiatives
  • Explore IP4 – IP2 interface by means of business benefits

WP3 - Management of project, coordination with other projects and IPs

  • To coordinate and supervise activities to be carried out.
  • To carry out the overall administrative and financial management of the project.
  • To manage contacts with the JU S2R.
  • To monitor quality and timing of project deliverables.
  • To assess potential risks and mitigate their impact.
  • To establish effective communication procedures and quality assurance system.
  • To establish relation with other IP, for developing CDM Offer to all actors of railways sector




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Pierre-etienne Gautier

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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No: 101014540